Breast Cancer Research and Treatment

, Volume 2, Issue 1, pp 5–73 | Cite as

Differentiation of the mammary gland and susceptibility to carcinogenesis

  • Jose Russo
  • Lee K. Tay
  • Irma H. Russo

Summary

It has been demonstrated that in humans certain factors such as early menarche, late pregnancy, and nulliparity are associated with a higher risk of developing breast cancer, while early pregnancy acts as a protective factor. Induction of mammary cancer in rats by administration of the chemical carcinogen 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene reveals that the same factors influencing human breast cancer risk also affect the susceptibility of the rat mammary gland to the chemical carcinogen. Nulliparous rats and rats undergoing pregnancy interruption are more susceptible to developing carcinomas. This fact has been attributed to the incomplete differentiation of the gland at the time of carcinogen administration. Parous rats are resistant to the carcinogenic effect of DMBA, which is explained by the complete development of the gland attained during pregnancy and lactation. This development is manifested by the differentiation of terminal end buds into secretory units, which have a smaller proliferative compartment; the epithelial cells of these secretory units have a longer cell cycle, less avidity for binding DMBA, and possess a more efficient DNA excision repair capacity.

Keywords

breast cancer cell cycle DNA-DMBA binding DNA repair DNA synthesis pathogenesis of breast cancer susceptibility to carcinogenesis 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Muir R: The evolution of carcinoma of the mamma. J Pathol Bacteriol 52: 155–172, 1941.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Humphrey LJ, Swerdlow M: Relationship of benign breast disease to carcinoma of the breast. Surgery 52: 841–846, 1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ryan JA, Coady CJ: Ductal proliferation in breast cancer. Can J Surg 5: 12–19, 1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sandison AT: An autopsy study of the adult human breast. Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 4: 1–145, 1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tanaka Y, Oota K: A stereomicroscopic study of the mastopathic human breast. I. Three dimensional structures of abnormal duct evolution and their histologic entity. Virch Arch (Path Anat) 349: 195–214, 1970.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dawson EK: A histological study of the normal mamma in relation to tumour growth. I. Early development to maturity. Edinb Med J 41: 653–682, 1934.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dawson EK: A histological study of the normal mamma in relation to tumour growth. II. The mature gland in pregnancy and lactation. Edinb Med J 42: 569–598, 1935.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fraser J: A study of the malignant breast by whole section and key block section methods. Surg Gynecol Obstet 45: 266–286, 1927.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fraser J: The breast in health and disease. Edinb Med J 36: 217–241, 1929.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cheatle GL: Desquamative and dysgenetic epithelial hyperplasia in breast: Their situation and characteristics: Their likeness to lesions induced by tar. Br J Surg 13: 509–532, 1926.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dawson EK: Carcinoma in the mammary lobule and its origin. Edinb Med J 40: 57–82, 1933.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dawson EK: Mammary cancer and the menopause. Edinb Med J 50: 721–736, 1943.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dawson EK: The genesis and spread of mammary cancer. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2: 241–247, 1948.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dawson EK: Premalignant conditions in breast cancer.In L Severi (ed): The morphological precursors of cancer. Perugia University Press, Perguia, 1962, pp 383–388.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cole WH, Rossiter LJ: Chronic cystic mastitis: With particular reference to classification. Ann Surg 119: 573–590, 1944.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Geschickter CF: Diseases of the breast: Diagnosis, pathology, treatment. Lipincott, Philadelphia, 1945, pp 413.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Foote FW, Stewart FW: Comparative studies of cancerous verus noncancerous breasts. Ann Surg 121: 6–53, 1945.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Foote FW, Stewart FW: Comparative studies of cancerous versus noncancerous breasts. Ann Surg 121: 197–222, 1945.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Black MM, Chabon AB: In situ carcinoma of the breast.In SC Sommers (ed): Pathology Annual. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, 1969, pp 185–210.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gallager HS, Martin JE: Early phases in the development of breast cancer. Cancer 24: 1170–1178, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kern WHJ, Brooks RN: A typical epithelial hyperplasia associated with breast cancer and fibrocystic disease. Cancer 24: 668–675, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Welling SR, Jensen HM, Marcum RG: An atlas of subgross pathology of the human breast with special reference to possible precancerous lesions. J Natl Cancer Inst 55: 231–273, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Vorherr H: Development of the female breast.In The Breast. Academic Press, New York, 1974, pp 1–18.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ashikari R, Hajda SI, Robbins GF: Intraductal carcinoma of the breast. Cancer 28: 1182–1187, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    MacMahon B, Cole P, Liu M, Lowe CR, Mirra AP, Ravinihar B, Salber EJ, Valaoras VG, Yuasa S: Age at first birth and breast cancer risk. Bull WHO 34: 209–221, 1970.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Valaoras VG, MacMahon B, Trichopoulos D, Polychronopoulou A: Lactation and reproductive histories of breast cancer patients in greater Athens, 1965–1967. Int J Cancer 4: 350–363, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lim TM, Chen KP, MacMahon B: Epidemiologic characteristics of cancer of the breast in Taiwan. Cancer 27: 1497–1504, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Parnihar B, MacMahon B, Lindtner J: Epidemiologic features of breast cancer in Slovenia, 1965–1967. Europ J Cancer 7: 295–306, 1971.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yuasa S, MacMahon B: Lactation and reproductive histories of breast cancer patients in Tokyo, Japan Bull WHO 42: 195–204, 1970.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Shapiro S, Strax P, Venet L: The search for risk factors in breast cancer. Am J Public Health 58: 820–835, 1968.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Salber EJ, Trichopoulos D, MacMahon B: Lactation and reproductive histories of breast cancer patients in Boston. J Natl Cancer Inst 43: 1013–1024, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Segi M, Fukushima I, Fujisaku S: An epidemiological study on cancer in Japan. Gann 48 (Suppl): 1–63, 1957.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Staszewski J: Age at menarche and breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 47: 935–940, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ingleby H, Gerchon-Cohen J: Comparative anatomy, pathology, and roentgenology of the breast. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 1960, pp 291–309.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kiaer W: Relation of fibroadenomatosis (chronic mastitis) to cancer of the breast. Munksgaard, Copenhagen, 1954, pp 159.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Parks AG: The micro-anatomy of the breasts. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 24: 235–251, 1959.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bonser GM, Dossett JA, Jull JW: Cyclic disease and epithelial proliferation as precancerous conditions in the human breast.In Human and Experimental Breast Cancer. Charles C Thomas, Springfield Ill, 1971, pp 316–363.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    McLaughlin CW, Schenken JR, Tamisiea JX: A study of precancerous epithelial hyperplasia and noninvasive papillary carcinoma of the breast. Ann Surg 153: 735–744, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Mirra AP, Cole P, MacMahon B: Breast cancer in an area of high parity: Sao Paulo, Brazil. Cancer Res 31: 77–83, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lilienfeld AM: The relationship of cancer of the female breast to artificial menopause and marital status. Cancer 9: 927–934, 1956.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Logan WPD: Marriage and childbearing in relation to cancer of the breast and uterus. Lancet 2: 1199–1202, 1953.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Damon A: Host factors in cancer of the breast and uterine cervix and corpus. J Natl Cancer Inst 24: 483–516, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Stewart HL, Dunham LJ, Casper J, Dorn HF, Thomas LB, Edgcomb JH, Symeonidis A: Epidemiology of uterine cervix and corpus, breast and ovary in Israel and New York City. J Natl Cancer Inst 37: 1–95, 1966.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sherman BM, Korenman SG: Inadequate corpus luteum function: A pathophysiological interpretation of human breast cancer epidemiology. Cancer 33: 1306–1312, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bulbrook RD, Hayward JL, Spicer CC, Thomas BS: Urinary steroid excretion of normal women and women with advanced breast cancer. Lancet ii: 1235–1240, 1962.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bulbrook RD, Hayward JL, Thomas BS: The relation between urinary 17-hydroxycorticosteroids and 11-deoxy-17-oxosteroids and the fate of patients with mastectomy. Lancet i: 945–947, 1964.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kumaoka S, Sakauchi N, Abe O, Kusama M, Takatani I: Urinary 17-ketosteroid excretion of women with advanced breast cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 28: 667–672, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bulbrook RD, Hayward JL, Spicer CC: Relation between urinary androgen and corticoid excretion and subsequent breast cancer. Lancet ii: 395–398, 1971.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Wade AP, Davis JC, Tweedie MC: The discriminant function in early carcinoma of the breast. Lancet 1: 863–857, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Wade AP, Davis JC, Tweedie MC: Discriminants and breast cancer. Lancet 2: 54, 1969.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kaplan SD, Acheson RM: A single etiological hypothesis for breast cancer? J Chronic Dis 19: 1221–1230, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hirayama T, Wynder EL: A study of the epidemiology of cancer of the breast. Cancer 15: 28–38, 1962.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Feinleib M: Breast cancer and artificial menopause: A cohort study. J Natl Cancer Inst 41: 315–329, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Grattarola R: The premenstrual endometrial pattern of women with breast cancer. Cancer 17: 1119–1122, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    MacMahon B, Cole P: Endocrinology and epidemiology of breast cancer. Cancer 24: 1146–1150, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Levin ML, Sheehe PR, Graham S, Glidewell O: Lactation and menstrual function as related to cancer of the breast. Am J Public Health 54: 580–587, 1964.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Lemon HM, Wotiz HH, Parsons L, Mozden PJ: Reduced estriol excretion in patients with breast cancer prior to endocrine therapy. J Am Med Assoc 196: 1128–1136, 1966.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lemon HM: Endocrine influences on human mammary cancer formation. Cancer 23: 781–790, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Gronroos M, Aho AJ: Estrogen metabolism in postmenopausal women with primary and recurrent breast cancer. Europ J Cancer 4: 523–527, 1968.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Marmorston J, Crowley LG, Myers SM, Stern E, Hopkins CE: Urinary excretion of estrone, estradiol and estriol by patients with breast cancer and benign breast disease. Am J Obstet Gynecol 92: 460–467, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Wynder EL, Bross JJ, Hirayama T: A study of the epidemiology of cancer of the breast. Cancer 13: 559–601, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    MacMahon B, Feinlieb M: Breast cancer in relation to nursing and menopausal history. J Natl Cancer Inst 24: 733–753, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Sunkara PS, Rao PN, Nishioka K: Role of putrescine in DNA synthesis and mitosis of mammalian cells (Abstract). Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 18: 84, 1977.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    McGregor DH, Land CE, Choi K, Tokuoka S, Liv PI: Breast cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950–69. J Natl Cancer Inst 59: 799–811, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Mackenzie I: Breast cancer following multiple fluoroscopies. Br J Cancer 19: 1–8, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Myrden JA, Hiltze JE: Breast cancer following multiple fluoroscopies during artificial pneumothorax treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. Can Med Assoc J 100: 1032–1034, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Boice JD, Monson RR: Breast cancer in women after repeated fluoroscopic examination of the chest. J Natl Cancer Inst 59: 823–832, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Higginson J: The role of geographical pathology in environmental carcinogenesis.In Twenty-fourth Annual Symposium on Fundamental Cancer Research: Environment and Cancer. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1972, pp 69–79.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Haenzel W, Kurikara V: Studies of Japanese migrants I. Mortality from cancer and other diseases among Japanese in the United States. J Natl Cancer Inst 40: 43–68, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Commoner B, Vithayathil AJ, Dolara P, Sabhadra N, Madyastha P, Cuca GC: Formation of mutagens in beef and beef extract during cooking. Science 201: 913–916, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Grasso P, O'Hare C: Carcinogens in food.In CE Searles (ed): Chemical Carcinogens. ACS Monograph, Washington, D.C., 1976, pp 701–728.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Surgeon General's Report, ‘Smoking and Health’. Government Printing Office, Public Health Service Publication No. 79-50066, Washington, D.C., 1979.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    In ‘Particulate Polycyclic Organic Matter’. Washington, D.C., National Academy of Sciences, 1972.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Petrakis NL, Mason L, Lee R, Sugimoto B, Pawson S, Catchpool F: Association of race, age, menopausal status, and cerumen type with breast fluid secretion in nonlactating women, as determined by nipple aspiration. J Natl Cancer Inst 54: 829–833, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Petrakis NL: Genetic cerumen type, breast secretory activity, and breast cancer epidemiology.In JS Mulvihill, RW Miller, JF Fraumeni Jr (eds): Genetics of Human Cancer. Raven Press, New York, 1977, pp 297–300.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Russo J, Saby J, Isenberg W, Russo IH: Pathogenesis of mammary carcinomas induced in rats by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. J Natl Cancer Inst 59: 435–445, 1977.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Dablow A: Die Milchdruse.In W Bargmann (ed): Handbuch der mikroskopischen Anatomie des Menschen, Vol 3, Part 3. Haut und Sinnes Organs. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1957, pp 277–485.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Boston collaborative drug surveillance program: Relation between breast cancer and S blood antigen system. Lancet 1: 301–305, 1971.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Armstrong B: Recent trends in breast cancer incidence and mortality in relation to changes in possible risk factors. Int J Cancer 17: 204–211, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    MacMahon B: Risk factors for endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol 2: 122–129, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Li FP, Fraumeni JF: Soft tissue sarcomas, breast cancer, and other neoplasms. A familial syndrome? Ann Intern Med 71: 747–752, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Anderson DE: Some characteristics of familial breast cancer. Cancer 28: 1500–1504, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Morosini P, Lee EG, Jones MN: Breast cancer and the S blood group system. Lancet 1: 411–412, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Patel R, Habal MB, Wilson RE: Histocompatibility (HL-A) antigens and cancer of the breast. Am J Surg 124: 31–34, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Petrakis NL: Cerumen genetics and human breast cancer. Science 173: 347–349, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Lilienfeld AM: The epidemiology of breast cancer. Cancer Res 23: 1503–1513, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Post RH: Breast cancer, lactation, and genetics. Eugen Quart 13: 1–29, 1966.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Vakil DV, Morgan RW: Etiology of breast cancer. I. Genetic aspects. Can Med Assoc J 109: 29–32, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Anderson DE: A genetic study of human breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 48: 1029–1034, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Mazzaleni GF: Rapporti di frequenza fra carcinoma mammario e gravidanza. Riv Anat Pathol Oncol 17: 243–260, 1960.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Bonser GM, Dossett JA, Jull JW: Human and experimental breast cancer. Charles C Thomas, Publisher, Springfield, Ill, 1961, pp 397–410.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Cutler M: Tumors of the breast. JB Lippincott Co, Philadelphia, 1962, pp 148–158.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Juret P, Couette JE, Mandard AM, Carre A, Delozier T, Brune D, Vernhes JC: Age and menarche as a prognostic factor in human breast cancer. Eur J Cancer 12: 701–704, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Wotiz HH, Shane JA, Vigersky R, Brecher PI: The regulatory role of oestriol in the proliferative action of oestradiol.In AP Forest and PB Kunkler (eds): Prognostic Factors in Breast Cancer. Longman, London, 1968, pp 368–377.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Cole P, MacMahon B: Oestrogen fractions during early reproductive life in the aetiology of breast cancer. Lancet 1: 604–606, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    MacMahon B: Etiology of human breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 50: 21–42, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Juret P, Couette JE, Brune D, Vernhes JC: L'age à la premiere naissance: une variable à la signification simple, double ou triple eu cancerologie mammaire. Bull Cancer (Paris) 62: 165–174, 1975.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Russo J, Russo IH, Ireland M, Saby J: Increased resistance of multiparous rat mammary gland to neoplastic transformation by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (Abstract). Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 18: 149, 1977.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Dao TL: Carcinogenesis of mammary gland in rat. Prog Exp Tumor Res 5: 157–216, 1964.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Moon RC: Relationship between previous reproductive history and chemically induced mammary cancer in rats. Int J Cancer 4: 312–317, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Huggins C, Briziarelli G, Sutton H: Rapid induction of mammary carcinoma in the rat and the influence of hormones on the tumors. J Exp Med 109: 25–54, 1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Murad T, von Haam E: Studies of mammary carcinoma induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene administration. Cancer Res 32: 1404–1415, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Huggins C, Grand LC, Brillantes FP: Critical significance of breast structure in the induction of mammary cancer in the rat. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 45: 1294–1300, 1959.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    McCormick GM, Moon RC: Effect of pregnancy and lactation on growth of mammary tumors induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). Br J Cancer 19: 160–166, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Dao TL, Bock FG, Greiner MJ: Mammary carcinogenesis by 3-methylcholanthrene. II. Inhibitory effect of pregnancy and lactation on tumor induction. J Natl Cancer Inst 25: 991–1003, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Higginson J, Muir CS: Epidemiology.In JF Holland and E Frei III (eds): Cancer Medicine. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, 1974, pp 241–306.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Miller JA, Miller EC: The metabolic activation of carcinogenic aromatic amines and amides. Prog Exp Tumor Res 11: 273–301, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Huberman E, Sachs L: Cell susceptibility to transformation and cytotoxicity by the carcinogenic hydrocarbon benzo(a) pyrene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 56: 1123–1129, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Brookes P, Lawley PD: Evidence for the binding of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons to the nucleic acids of mouse skin: Relation between carcinogenic power of hydrocarbons and their binding to DNA. Nature 202: 781–784, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Kuroki T, Heidelberger C: The binding of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the DNA, RNA and proteins of transformable cells in culture. Cancer Res 31: 2168–2176, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Nagasawa H, Yanai R: Frequency of mammary cell division in relation to age: Its significance in the induction of mammary tumors by carcinogen in rats. J Natl Cancer Inst 52: 609–610, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Nagasawa H: Causes of age-dependency of mammary tumour induction by carcinogens in rats. Biomedicine 34: 9–11, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    McCarter JA, Quastler H: Effect of dimethylbenzanthracene on the cellular proliferation cycle. Nature 194: 873–874, 1962.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Bertram JS, Heidelberger C: Cell cycle dependency on oncogenic transformation induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine in culture. Cancer Res 34: 526–537, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Marquardt H: Cell cycle dependence of chemically induced malignant transformation in vitro. Cancer Res 34: 1612–1615, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Little JB, Hahn GM: Life-cycle dependence of repair of potentially-lethal radiation damage. Int J Radiat Biol Relat Stud Phys Chem Med 23: 401–407, 1972.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Heidelberger C: Chemical carcinogenesis. Ann Rev Biochem 44: 72–121, 1975.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Irving CC: Interaction of chemical carcinogens with DNA,In H Busch (ed): Methods in Cancer Research. Academic Press, New York, 1973, pp 189–244.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Miller EC, Miller JA: Mechanisms of chemical carcinogenesis: Nature of proximate carcinogens and interactions with macromolecules. Pharm Rev 18: 805–838, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Dipple A, Lawley PD, Brookes P: Theory of tumor initiation by chemical carcinogens, dependence of activity on structure of ultimate carcinogens. Europ J Cancer 4: 493–502, 1968.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Shag H, Friedmann B, Gruenstein M, Weinhouse S: Mammary excretion of 20-methylcholanthrene. Cancer Res 10: 797–800, 1950.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Grubbs CJ, Moon RC: Effect of age and parity upon the uptake of 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benz(a)anthracene-9-14C by mammary parenchymal cells of the rat. Br J Cancer 31: 189–196, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Janss DH, Moon RC: Effect of endocrine organ ablation on uptake and clearance of 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene-9-14C by mammary parenchymal cells of the rat. Cancer Res 31: 2026–2031, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Miller JA: Carcinogenesis by chemicals: An overview — G.H.A. Clowes Memorial Lecture. Cancer Res 30: 559–576, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Grover PL, Hewer A, Sims P: Epoxides as microsomal metabolites of polycyclic hydrocarbons. FEBS Lett 18: 76–80, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Jerina DM, Daly JW, Witkop B, Zaltzmann-Nurenburg P, Udenfriend S: Role of the arene oxide-oxepine system in the metabolism of aromatic substrates. I. In vitro conversion of benzeneoxide to a premercapturic acid and a dihydrodiol. Arch Biochem Biophys 128: 176–183, 1968.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Jerina DM, Daly JW, Witkop B, Zaltzman-Nurenburg P, Udenfriend S: 1,2-Naphthalene oxide as an intermediate in the microsomal hydroxylation of naphthalene. Biochemistry 9: 147–155, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Lawley PD, Tratcher CJ: Methylation of deoxyribonucleic acid in cultured mammalian cells by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. The influence of cellular thiol concentrations on the extent of methylation and the 6-oxygen atom of guanine as a site of methylation. Biochem J 116: 693–707, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Grover PL, Forrester JA, Sims P: Reactivity of the K-region epoxides of some polycyclic hydrocarbons towards the nucleic acids and proteins of BHK 21 cells. Biochem Pharmacol 20: 1297–1302, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Grover PL, Sims P: Interactions of the K-region epoxides of phenanthrene and dibenz(a,h)anthracene with nucleic acids and histones. Biochem Pharmacol 19: 2251–2259, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Huebner R, Todaro G: Oncogenesis of RNA tumor viruses as determinants of cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 64: 1087–1094, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Yamamoto T, Rabinowitz Z, Sachs L: Identification of the chromosomes that control malignancy. Nature (New Biol) 243: 247, 1973.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Temin HM: On the origin of the genes for neoplasia: G.H.A. Clowes Memorial Lecture. Cancer Res 34: 2835–2841, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Tamulski TS, Morreal CE, Dao TL: Comparative metabolism of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in liver and mammary tissue. Cancer Res 33: 3117–3122, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Pound AW: The influence of preliminary irritation by acetic acid or croton oil on skin tumour production in mice after a single application of dimethylbenzanthracene, benzopyrene or dibenzanthracene. Br J Cancer 22: 533–544, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Chernozemski IN, Warick GP: Liver regeneration and induction of hepatomas in B6AF mice by urethan. Cancer Res 30: 2685–2690, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Bowden GT, Shapas BG, Boutwell RK: The binding of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)-anthracene to replicating and nonreplicating DNA in mouse skin. Chem Biol Interact 8: 379–394, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Janss DH, Hadaway EI: Effect of strain and age on the binding of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) to rat mammary epithelial cell macromolecules (Abstract). Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 18: 208, 1977.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Coggin JH, Anderson NG: Cancer, differentiation and embryonic antigens: Some central problems. Adv Cancer Res 19: 105–165, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Brown RJ: Possible association of embryonal antigen(s) with several primary 3-methylcholanthrene-induced murine sarcomas. Int J Cancer 6: 245–249, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Cannon GB, Bonnard GD, Djeu J, West W, Herberman RB: Relationship of human natural lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity to cytotoxicity of breast-cancer-derived target cells. Int J Cancer 19: 487–497, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Coggin JH, Ambrose KR, Anderson NG: Phase specific surface autoantigens on membranes of fetus and tumors. Adv Exp Biol Med 29: 483–490, 1973.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Girardi AJ, Reppucci P, Dierlam P, Rutala W, Coggin J: Prevention of simian virus 40 tumors by hamster fetal tissue: Influence of parity status of donor females on immunogenicity of fetal tissue and on immune cell cytotoxicity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 70: 183–186, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Anderson NJ, Coggin JH: Embryonic antigens in virally transformed cells.In SB Day and RA Good (eds): Membranes and Viruses in Immunopathology. Academic Press, New York, 1972, pp 217–219.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Winslow S: Masters Thesis, Univ Tennessee, Univ Tennessee Press, Knoxville, 1972.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Kellen JA, Cocuzzi E: Resistance to a transplantable rat mammary tumor (DMBA SBT) after pretreatment with fetal cells (Abstract). Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 18: 39, 1977.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Butle GAH, Eperson J, Menzies DN: Induced tumor resistance in rats. Lancet 2: 12–14, 1964.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Prehn RT: The significance of tumor-distinctive histocompatibility antigens.In JJ Trentin (ed); Cross-reacting Antigens and Neoantigens, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1967, pp 105–119.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Ting RC: Failure to induce transplantation resistance against polyoma tumour cells with syngeneic embryonic tissues. Nature 217: 858–859, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Blair PB: Search for cross-reacting antigenicity between mammary tumor virus-induced mammary tumors and embryonic antigens: Effect of immunization on development of spontaneous mammary tumors. Cancer Res 30: 1199–1202, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Trosko JE, Chu EH: The role of DNA repair and somatic mutation in carcinogenesis. Adv Cancer Res 21: 391–425, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Nagao M, Sugimura T: Molecular biology of the carcinogen, 4-nitro-quinoline 1-oxide.In G Klein and S Weinhouse (eds): Advances in Cancer Research 23. Academic Press, New York, 1976, pp 132.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Cowie AT, Folley SJ: The role of the adrenal cortex in mammary development and its relation to the mammogenic action of the anterior pituitary. Endocrinol 40: 274–285, 1947.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Benson GJ, Cowie AT, Cox CP, Goldzveic SA: Effects of oestrone and progesterone on mammary development in the guinea pig. J Endocrinol 15: 126–144, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    DeOme KB, Faulkin LJ, Bern MA, Blair P: Development of mammary tumors from hyperplastic alveolar nodules transplanted into gland-free mammary fat pads of female C3H mice. Cancer Res 19: 515–520, 1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Raynaud A: Morphogenesis of the mammary gland.In SK Kon and AT Cowie (eds): Milk: The Mammary Gland and Its Secretions. Academic Press, New York, 1961, pp 3–44.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Cowie AT, Folley SJ: The mammary gland and lactation.In WC Young (ed): Sex and Internal Secretions. Williams and Wilkens, Baltimore, 1961, pp 590–642.Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Russo IH, Saby J, Isenberg W: Early signs of malignant transformation in rat mammary carcinoma (Abstract). Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 17: 463, 1976.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Russo J, Russo IH: DNA labeling index and structure of the rat mammary gland as determinants of its susceptibility to carcinogenesis. J Natl Cancer Inst 61: 1451–1459, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Furmanski P, Longley C, Fouchey D, Rich R, Rich M: Normal human mammary cells in culture: Evidence for oncornavirus-like particles. J Natl Cancer Inst 52: 975–978, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Russo J, Furmanski P, Rich MA: An ultrastructural study of normal human mammary epithelial cells in culture. Am J Anat 142: 221–232, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Russo J, Furmanski P, Bradley R, Wells P, Rich M: Differentiation of normal human mammary epithelial cells in culture. Am J Anat 145: 57–63, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Cowie AT: The relative growth of the mammary gland in normal, gonadectomized and adrenalectomized rats. J Endocrinol 6: 145–157, 1949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Silver M: A quantitative analysis of the role of oestrogen in mammary development in the rat. J Endocrinol 10: 17–34, 1953.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Cole HA: The mammary gland of the mouse during the oestrus cycle, pregnancy and lactation. Proc R Soc Biol Sci 114: 136–150, 1933.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Turner CW, Schultze AB: A study of the causes of the normal development of the mammary glands of the albino rat. Mo Agric Sta, Columbia Res Bull 157, 1931.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Vorherr H: Suppression of post-partum lactation. Postgrad Med 52: 145–152, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Tyson JE, Hwang P, Guyda H, Friesen HG: Studies of prolactin secretion in human pregnancy. Amer J Obstet Gynecol 113: 14–20, 1972.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Tyson JE, Blizzard RM: Prolactin and thyrotropin secretion in human pregnancy (Abstract). Clin Res 20: 443, 1972.Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Berle P, Apostolakis M: Prolaktin-Konzentrationen im menschlichen Plasma während Schwangerschaft und Wochenbett. Acta Endocrinol 67: 63–72, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Forbes TR: Absorption of crystalline testosterone, testosterone proprionate, methyl testosterone, progesterone, desoxycorticosterone and stilbestrol implanted in the rat. Endocrinol 29: 70–76, 1941.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Chalterton RT: Progesterone and mammary gland development.In KW McKerns (ed): The Sex Steroids — Molecular Mechanisms. Appleton Century-Crofts, New York, 1971, pp 345–382.Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Bassler R: The morphology of hormone induced structural changes in the female breast. Curr Top Pathol 53: 1–89, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Toker C: Observations on the ultrastructure of a mammary ductule. J Ultrastruct Res 21: 9–25, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Sterling JW, Chandler JA: The fine structure of the normal, resting terminal ductal-lobular unit of the female breast. Virchows Arch Abt A Pathol Anat Histol 372: 205–226, 1976.Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Russo IH, Ireland M, Isenberg W, Russo J: Ultrastructural description of three different epithelial cell types in rat mammary gland (Abstract). Proc Electron Microscopy Soc Am 34: 146–147, 1976.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Russo J, Isenberg W, Ireland M, Russo IH: Ultrastructural changes in the mammary epithelial cell population during neoplastic development induced by a chemical carcinogen (Abstract). Proc Electron Microscopy Soc Am 34: 250–251, 1976.Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Sinha DK, Dao TL: A direct mechanism of mammary carcinogenesis induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. J Natl Cancer Inst 53: 841–846, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Huggins C, Grand LC, Brillantes FP: Mammary cancer induced by a single feeding of polynuclear hydrocarbons, and its suppression. Nature 189: 204–207, 1967.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Huggins C, Yang NC: Induction and extinction of mammary cancer. Science 137: 257–262, 1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Payne S: The pathological effects of the intraperitoneal injection of 3,4-benzpyrene into rats and mice. Br J Cancer 12: 65–74, 1958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Pataki J, Huggins C: Molecular site of substituents of benz(a) anthracene related to carcinogenicity. Cancer Res 29: 506–509, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Russo IH, Russo J: Developmental stage of the rat mammary gland as determinant of its susceptibility to 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. J Natl Cancer Inst 61: 1439–1449, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Haslam SZ, Bern HA: Histopathogenesis of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74: 4020–4024, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Medina D: Mammary tumorigenesis in chemical carcinogen-treated mice. VI. Tumor-producing capabilities of mammary dysplasias in BALB/cCrgl mice. J Natl Cancer Inst 57: 1185–1189, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Clemens JA, Welsch CW, Meites J: Effects of hypothalmic lesions on incidence and growth of mammary tumors in carcinogen-treated rats. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 127: 969–972, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Welsch CW, Clemens JA, Meites J: Effects of multiple pituitary homografts or progesterone on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced tumors in rats. J Natl Cancer Inst 41: 465–471, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Marchant J: The inhibitory effect of continued lactation on the incidence of chemically-induced breast tumours in mice of the IF strain. Br J Cancer 12: 55–61, 1958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Russo J: DNA synthesis and terminal end bud density in mammary gland as determinants of susceptibility to carcinogens (Abstract). Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 19: 228, 1978.Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Ciocca DR, Russo J: Prolactin levels in susceptible and non-susceptible rats to DMBA carcinogenesis (Abstract). Proc 3rd Ann Cancer Res Conf Ohio Valley — Lake Erie Assoc Cancer Centers, Detroit, Michigan, 1980, pp 27.Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Yuasa S, MacMahon B: Lactation and reproductive histories of breast cancer patients in Tokyo, Japan. Bull WHO 42: 192–204, 1970.Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Marchant J: Influence of pregnancy and lactation on the incidence of mammary carcinoma induced with methylcholanthrene in female mice of the ‘IF’ strain. J Pathol Bacteriol 70: 415–418, 1955.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Marchant J: Local inhibition by lactation of chemically induced breast tumors in mice of the IF strain. Nature 183: 629, 1959.Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Russo J, Wilgus G, Russo IH: Susceptibility of the mammary gland to carcinogenesis. l. Differentiation of the mammary gland as determinant of tumor incidence and type of lesion. Am J Pathol 96: 721–736, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Dao TL, Sunderland H: Mammary carcinogenesis by 3-methylcholanthrene. l. Hormonal aspects in tumor induction and growth. J Natl Cancer Inst 23: 567–581, 1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Kledzick GS, Bradley CJ, Meites J: Reduction of carcinogen-induced mammary cancer incidence in rats by early treatment with hormones or drugs. Cancer Res 34: 2953–2956, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Spellacy WN: Immunoassay of human placental lactogens: Physiological studies on normal and abnormal pregnancy.In GEW Wolster-Holm and J Knight (eds): Lactogenic Hormones. Churchill Livingston, London, 1972 pp 223–235.Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Nagasawa H, Yanai R: Effect of human placental lactogen on growth of carcinogen-induced mammary tumors in rats. Int J Cancer 11: 131–137, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Russo IH: Topographical differences in cell cycle and growth fraction as determinants of the site of origin of mammary carcinoma (Abstract). Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 20: 230, 1979.Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Wilgus G, Russo J: Cell cycle and growth fraction of virgin and parous rat mammary gland as determinants of different susceptibility to carcinogenesis (Abstract). Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 20: 238, 1979.Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    McCormick GM, Moon RC: Effect of increasing doses of estrogen and progesterone on mammary carcinogenesis in the rat. Europ J Cancer 9: 483–486, 1973.Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Welsch CW, Meites J: Effects of a norethynodrel-mestranol combination (enovid) on development and growth of carcinogen-induced mammary tumors in female rats. Cancer 23: 601–607, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Hwang P, Guyda H, Friesen H: A radioimmunoassay for human prolactin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 68: 1902–1906, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Roy EJ, Mackay R: The concentration of oestrogens in blood during pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Empire 69: 13–17, 1962.Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    Short RV: Progesterone.In CH Grey and AL Bacharach (eds): Hormones in Blood. Academic Press, New York, 1961, pp 379–437.Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    Yoshimi T, Strott CA, Marshall JR, Lipsett MB: Corpus luteum function in early pregnancy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 29: 225–230, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Russo J, Russo IH: Influence of differentiation and cell kinetics on the susceptibility of the rat mammary gland to carcinogenesis. Cancer Res 40: 2677–2687, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Russo J, Tay LK, Wilgus G: Effect of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a) anthracene (DMBA) on rat mammary epithelial cells in culture (Abstract). Fed Proc 38: 1249, 1979.Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    Tay LK, Russo J: 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced DNA binding and repair synthesis in susceptible and nonsusceptible mammary epithelial cells in culture. J Natl Cancer Inst 67: 155–161, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Ceriani RL, Thompson K, Peterson JA: Surface differentiation antigens of human mammary epithelial cells carried on the human milk fat globule. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74: 582–586, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Ceriani RL, Peterson JA: Characterization of difantigens of the mouse mammary epithelial cell (MME antigens) carried on the mouse milk fat globule. Cell Diff 7: 355–360, 1978.Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    Thompson K, Ceriani RL, Wong D, Abraham S: Immunologic methods for the identification of cell types. I. Specific antibodies that distinguish between mammary gland epithelial cells and fibroblasts. J Natl Cancer Inst 57: 167–172, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Ceriani RL, Peterson JA, Abraham S: Immunologic methods for the identification of cell types. II. Expression of normal mouse mammary epithelial cell antigens in mammary neoplasia. J Natl Cancer Inst 61: 747–751, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Fitzgerald DK, Brodbeck U, Kiyosawa I, Mawal B, Colvin B, Ebner KE:α-Lactalbumin and the lactose synthetase reaction. J Biol Chem 245: 2103–2108, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Kuhn NJ: Lactogenesis in the rat. Metabolism of uridine diphosphate galactose by mammary gland. Biochem J 106: 743–748, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    McKenzie L, Fitzgerald DK, Ebner KE: Lactose synthetase activities in rat and mouse mammary glands. Biochem Biophys Acta 230: 526–530, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Palmiter RD: Hormonal induction and regulation of lactose synthetase in mouse mammary gland. Biochem J 113: 409–417, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Turkington RW, Brew K, Vanaman TC, Hill RL: The hormonal control of lactose synthetase in the developing mouse mammary gland. J Biol Chem 243: 3382–3387, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Russo J, Wells P: Light microscopic localization of cytochemical reactions in epoxy-embedded material for electron microscopy. J Histochem Cytochem 23: 921–931, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Russo J, Wells P: Ultrastructural localizations of adenosine triphosphatase activity in resting mammary gland. J Histochem Cytochem 25: 135–148, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Russo J, Wilgus G: Growth kinetics of rat mammary gland epithelial cells in culture (Abstract). In Vitro 15: 35, 1979.Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    Russo J, Wilgus G, Tait L, Russo IH: Influence of age and parity on the susceptibility of rat mammary gland epithelial cells in primary cultures to 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. In Vitro 17: 877–884, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Hayflick L: The Limited in vitro lifetime of human diploid cell strains. Exp Cell Res 37: 614–635, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Martin GM, Sprague CA, Epstein CJ: Replicative life-span of cultivated human cells. Lab Invest 23: 86–92, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Goldstein S, Littlefield JW, Soeldner JS: Diabetes mellitus and aging. Diminished plating efficiency of cultured human fibroblasts. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 64: 155–160, 1970.Google Scholar
  226. 226.
    Hayflick L, Moorhead PS: The serial cultivation of human diploid cell strains. Exp Cell Res 25: 585–621, 1961.Google Scholar
  227. 227.
    Schneider EL, Mitsui Y: The relationship between in vitro cellular aging and in vivo human age. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 73: 3584–3588, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Voyles BA, McGrath CM: Differential response of maligant BALB/c mammary epithelial cells to the multiplicationstimulating activity of insulin. J Natl Cancer Inst 62: 597–603, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Shunkin MB, Gruenstein M, Thatcher D, Baserga R: Tritiated thymidine labeling of cells in rats following exposure to 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. Cancer Res 27: 1494–1495, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Tong C, Fazio M, Williams GM: Cell cycle-specific mutagenesis at the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase locus in adult rat liver epithelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77: 7377–7379, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Prodi G, Rocchi P, Grilli S: Binding of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene to nucleic acids and proteins of organs in rats. Cancer Res 30: 1020–1023, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Tominaga T, Dao TL, Libby PR: Effects of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene on RNA polymerase in isolated mammary gland cell nuclei. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 136: 694–697, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Pound AW: Carcinogenesis and cell proliferation. NZ Med J 67: 88–99, 1968.Google Scholar
  234. 234.
    Marquardt H, Bendick A, Phillips FS: Binding of [G-3H] 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and hepatic neoplasia in regenerating rat liver. Chem-Biol Interact 3: 1–11, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Tominaga T, Libby PR, Dao TL: An early effect of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene on rat mammary gland DNA synthesis. Cancer Res 30: 118–122, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Schneider EL, Chaillet JR, Tice RR: In vivo BUdR labeling of mammalian chromosomes. Exp Cell Res 100: 396–399, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Schneider EL, Sternberg H, Tice RR: In vivo analysis of cellular replication. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74: 2041–2044, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Perry P, Wolff S: New giemsa method for the differential staining of sister chromatids. Nature 251: 156–158, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Krain D, Schneider EL, Singer L, Martin GR: The effects of high and low fluoride diets on the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges. Mutat Res 57: 51–55, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Nakanishi Y, Schneider EL: In vivo sister chromatid exchange: A sensitive measure of DNA damage. Mutat Res 60: 329–337, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Schneider EL: Cell replication and aging: in vitro and in vivo studies. Fed Proc 38: 1857–1867, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Tice RR, Schneider EL, Krain D, Thorne P: Cytokinetic analysis of the impaired proliferative response of peripheral lymphocytes from aged humans to phytohemagglutinin. J Exp Med 149: 1029–1041, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Abe S, Kakata S, Sandberg AA: Growth rate and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) incidence of bone marrow cells in acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML). Cancer Genet Cytogenet 1: 115–130, 1979.Google Scholar
  244. 244.
    Abe S, Sandberg AA: Sister chromatid exchange and growth kinetics of bone marrow cells in aneuploid acute nonlymphocytic leukemias. Cancer Res 40: 1292–1299, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Voyles BA, McGrath CM: Markers to distinguish normal and neoplastic mammary epithelial cells in vitro: Comparison of saturation density morphology and concanavalin A reactivity. Int J Cancer 18: 498–509, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Asch BB, Medina D, Brinkley BR: Microtubules and actincontaining filaments of normal, preneoplastic, and neoplastic mouse mammary epithelial cells. Cancer Res 39: 893–907, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Das NK, Hosick HL, Nandi S: Influence of seeding density on multicellular organization and nuclear events in cultures of normal and neoplastic mouse mammary epithelium. J Natl Cancer Inst 52: 849–861, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Pickett PB, Pitelka DR, Hamamoto ST, Mispeldt DS: Occluding junctions and cell behavior in primary cultures of normal and neoplastic mammary gland cells. J Cell Biol 66: 316–332, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Asch BB, Medina D: Concanavalin A-induced agglutinability of normal, preneoplastic, and neoplastic mouse mammary cells. J Natl Cancer Inst 61: 1423–1430, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Furmanski P, Phillips PG, Subin M: Cell surface interactions with concanavalin A: Determination by hemadsorption. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 140: 216–219, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Iype PT, Pontzes CH: Identification of transformed liver cell colonies using concanavalin A attached to agarose beads. Cancer Res 40: 4663–4668, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Voyles BA, Kirkland WL, Furmanski P, McGrath CM: Concanavalin A hemadsorption by normal and malignant human mammary epithelial cells. Cancer Res 38: 1578–1583, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Nicholson GL: Difference in the topology of normal and tumor cell membranes shown by different surface distributions of ferritin-conjugated concanavalin A. Nature (New Biol) 233: 244–246, 1971.Google Scholar
  254. 254.
    Inbar M, Ben-Basset H, Sach L: Membrane changes associated with malignancy. Nature 236: 3–16, 1972.Google Scholar
  255. 255.
    Ozanne B, Sambrook J: Binding of radioactively labeled concanavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin to normal and transformed cells. Nature (New Biol) 232: 156–160, 1971.Google Scholar
  256. 256.
    Cline MJ, Livingston DC: Binding of3H-concanavalin A by normal and transformed cells. Nature (New Biol) 232: 155–156, 1971.Google Scholar
  257. 257.
    Wetzel B, Kendig EM, Jones GM, Sanford KK: A systematic scanning electron microscope analysis of mitotic cell populations in monolayer culture. Scan Elec Micr 11: 949–958, 1978.Google Scholar
  258. 258.
    Shohan J, Sachs L: Different cyclic changes in the surface membrane of normal and malignant transformed cells. Exp Cell Res 85: 8–14, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Allen TD, Iype PT: The surface morphology of normal and malignant rat liver epithelial cells in culture. In Vitro 12: 837–843, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Russo J, Russo IH: Cell surface characteristics of a human breast carcinoma cell line (MCF-7) (Abstract). Proc Electron Microscopy Soc Am 35: 492–493, 1977.Google Scholar
  261. 261.
    Soule H, Vasquez J, Ling AS, Albert S, Brennan MJA: Human cell line from a pleural infusion derived from a breast carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 51: 1409–1414, 1974.Google Scholar
  262. 262.
    Sharon N, Idalin L: Lectins: Cell agglutinating and sugar specific proteins. Science 177: 949–959, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Hallowes RC, Bone EJ, Jones W: A new dimension in the culture of human breast.In Rajan and Richards (eds): 2nd International Symposium on Tissue Culture in Medical Research. Pergamon Press, London, 1980.Google Scholar
  264. 264.
    Hallowes RC, Rudland PS, Hawkins RA, Lewis DJ, Bennett D, Durbin H: Comparison of the effects of hormones on DNA synthesis in cell cultures of non-neoplastic and neoplastic mammary epithelium from rats. Cancer Res 37: 2492–2504, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Miller EC: Some current perspectives on chemical carcinogenesis in human and experimental animals: Presidential Address. Cancer Res 38: 1479–1496, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Slaga TJ, Bowden GT, Scribner JD, Boutwell RK: Dose response studies on the ability of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and benz(a)anthracene to initiate skin tumors. J Natl Cancer Inst 53: 1337–1340, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Walters MA: The induction of lung tumors by the injection of 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA) into newborn suckling and young adult mice. Br J Cancer 20: 148–160, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Wislocki PG, Juliana MM, MacDonald JS, Chou MW, Yang SK, Lu AYH: Tumorigenicity of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, its hydroxymethylated derivatives and selected dihydrodiols in the newborn mouse. Carcinogenesis 2: 511–514, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Miller EC, Miller JA: Searches for ultimate chemical carcinogens and their reactions with cellular macromolecules. Cancer 47: 2327–2345, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    DiGiovanni J, Juchau MR: Biotransformation and bioactivation of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (7,12-DMBA). Drug Metab Revs 11: 61–101, 1980.Google Scholar
  271. 271.
    Boyland E, Sims P: Metabolism of polycyclic compounds. The metabolism of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene by rat liver homogenates. Biochem J 95: 780–787, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Chou MW, Easton GD, Yang SK: Metabolism of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and its methyl-hydroxylated metabolites: Formation of phenolic metabolites at the 2-position. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 88: 1085–1091, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Chou MW, Yang SK: Identification of four trans-3,4-dihydrodiol metabolites of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and their in vitro DNA binding activities upon further metabolism. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75: 5466–5470, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Chou MW, Yang SK: Combined reversed-phase and normal-phase high performance liquid chromatography in the purification and identification of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a) anthracene metabolites. J Chromatogr 185: 635–654, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Sims P: Studies on the metabolism of 7-methylbenz(a) anthracene and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and its hydroxymethyl derivatives in rat liver and adrenal homogenates. Biochem Pharmacol 19: 2261–2275, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Chou MW, Yang SK, Sydor W, Yang CS: Metabolism of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and 7-hydroxymethyl-12-methylbenz(a)anthracene by rat liver nuclei and microsomes. Cancer Res 41: 1559–1564, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Diamond L, Sardet C, Rothblat G: The metabolism of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in cell cultures. Int J Cancer 3: 838–849, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Gentil A, Lasne C, Chouroulinkov I: Metabolism and cytotoxicity of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene by hamster, rat and rabbit embryo cell cultures. Xenobiotica 7: 221–233, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Dao TL, Sinha DK: Mammary adenocarcinoma induced in organ culture by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. J Natl Cancer Inst 49: 591–593, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Richards J, Nandi S: Neoplastic transformation of rat mammary cells exposed to 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene or N-nitrosomethylurea in cell culture. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75: 3836–3840, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Flesher JW, Soedigdo S, Kelley DR: Synthesis of metabolites of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. 4-Hydroxy-7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, 7-hydroxymethyl-12-methylbenz(a)anthracene, their methyl ethers and acetoxy derivatives. J Med Chem 10: 932–936, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Wislocki PG, Gadek KM, Chou MW, Yang SK, Lu AYH: Carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of the 3,4-dihydrodiols and other metabolites of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and its hydroxymethyl derivatives. Cancer Res 40: 3661–3664, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Jerina DM, Daly JW: Oxidation at carbon.In DV Parke and RL Smith (eds): Drug Metabolism. Taylor and Francis, Ltd, London, 1976, pp 15–33.Google Scholar
  284. 284.
    Baird WM, Brookes P: Isolation of the hydrocarbondeoxyribonucleoside products from the DNA of mouse embryo cells treated in culture with 7-methylbenz(a)anthracene -3H. Cancer Res 33: 2378–2385, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Cooper CS, Ribeiro O, Hewer A, Walsh C, Grover PL, Sims P: Additional evidence for the involvement of the 3,4-diol-1,2-oxides in the metabolic activation of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in mouse skin. Chem-Biol Interact 29: 357–367, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Vigny P, Kindts M, Cooper CS, Grover PL, Sims P: Fluorescence spectra of nucleoside-hydrocarbon adducts formed in mouse skin treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. Carcinogenesis 2: 115–119, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Moschel RC, Baird WM, Dipple A: Metabolic activation of the carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene for DNA binding. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 76: 1092–1098, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Dipple A, Nebzydoski JA: Evidence for the involvement of a diol-epoxide in the binding of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene to DNA in cells in culture. Chem-Biol Interact 20: 17–26, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. 289.
    Ivanovic V, Geacintov NE, Jeffrey AM, Fu PP, Harvey RG, Weinstein IB: Cell and microsome mediated binding of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene to DNA studied by fluorescence spectroscopy. Cancer Lett 4: 131–140, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    Dipple A, Tomaszewski JE, Moschel RC, Bigger CAH, Nebzydoski JA, Egan M: Comparison of metabolismmediated binding to DNA of 7-hydroxymethyl-12-methylbenz(a)anthracene and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. Cancer Res 39: 1154–1158, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. 291.
    Baird WM, Dipple A: Photosensitivy of DNA-bound 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. Int J Cancer 20: 427–431, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. 292.
    Baird WM: Effect of light on the hydrocarbon-DNA adducts formed in hamster embryo cells. Int J Cancer 22: 292–297, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    Grover PL, MacNicoll AD, Sims P, Easty GC, Neville AM: Polycyclic hydrocarbon activation and metabolism in epithelial cell aggregates prepared from human mammary tissue. Int J Cancer 26: 467–475, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. 294.
    Tierney B, Hewer A, MacNicoll AD, Gervasi PG, Rattle H, Walsh C, Grover PL, Sims P: The formation of dihydrodiols by the chemical or enzymic oxidation of benz(a)anthracene and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. Chem-Biol Interact 23: 243–257, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. 295.
    Marquardt H, Baker S, Tierney B, Grover PL, Sims P: Induction of malignant transformation and mutagenesis by dihydrodiolsderivedfrom 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 85: 357–362, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. 296.
    Marquardt H, Baker S, Tierney B, Grover PL, Sims P: Comparison of mutagenesis and malignant transformation by dihydrodiols from benz(a)anthracene and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. Br J Cancer 39: 540–547, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. 297.
    Malaveille C, Bartsch H, Tierney B, Grover PL, Sims P: Microsome-mediated mutagenicities of the dihydrodiols of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene: High mutagenic activity of the 3,4-dihydrodiol. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 83: 1468–1473, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. 298.
    Slaga TJ, Gleason GL, DiGiovanni J, Sukumaran KB, Harvey RG: Potent tumor-initiating activity of the 3,4-dihydrodiol of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in mouse skin. Cancer Res 39: 1934–1936, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. 299.
    Yang SK, Chou MW, Roller PP: Potential proximate carcinogens of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene: Characterization of two metabolically formed trans-3,4-dihydrodiols. J Amer Chem Soc 101: 237–239, 1979.Google Scholar
  300. 300.
    Jerina DM, Yagi H, Lehr RE, Thakker DR, Schaeffer-Ridder M, Karle JM, Levin W, Wood AW, Chang RL, Conney AH: The bay region theory of carcinogenesis by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.In HV Gelboin and POP Ts'o (eds): Polycyclic Hydrocarbons and Cancer. Environment, Chemistry and Metabolism. Academic Press, New York, 1978, Vol 1, pp 173–178.Google Scholar
  301. 301.
    Flesher JW, Sydnor KL: Carcinogenicity of derivatives of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. Cancer Res 31: 1951–1954, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. 302.
    Flesher JW, Tay LK: Reactions of the carcinogens 7-hydroxymethyl-12-methylbenz(a)anthracene and 7-acet-oxymethyl-12-methylbenz(a)anthracene with DNA. Res Commun Chem Path Pharmacol 22: 345–355, 1978.Google Scholar
  303. 303.
    Tay LK, Sydnor KL, Flesher JW: Binding of 6-hydroxymethylbenzo(a)pyrene and 6-acetoxymethylbenzo(a)pyrene to DNA. Chem-Biol. Interact 25: 35–44, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. 304.
    Rogan EG, Roth RW, Katomski-Beck PA, Laubscher JR, Cavalieri EL: Non-enzymatic ATP-mediated binding of hydroxymethyl derivatives of aromatic hydrocarbons to DNA. Chem-Biol Interact 31: 51–63, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. 305.
    Roth RW, Grandjean C, Cavalieri EL: Comparative carcinogenicity of 7-methylbenz(a)anthracene and some of its derivatives at the methyl group (Abstract). Proc Amer Assoc Cancer Res 19: 203, 1978.Google Scholar
  306. 306.
    Goshman LM, Heidelberger C: Binding of tritium-labeled polycyclic hydrocarbons to DNA of mouse skin. Cancer Res 27: 1678–1688, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. 307.
    Duncan ME, Brookes P: The relation of metabolism to macromolecular binding of the carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene by mouse embryo cells in culture. Int J Cancer 6: 496–505, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. 308.
    Huberman E, Sachs L: DNA binding and its relationship to carcinogenesis by different polycyclic hydrocarbons. Int J Cancer 19: 122–127, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. 309.
    Duncan ME, Brookes P, Dipple A: Metabolism and binding to cellular macromolecules of a series of hydrocarbons by mouse embryo cells in culture. Int J Cancer 4: 813–819, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  310. 310.
    Janss DH, Moon RC, Irving CC: The binding of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene to mammary parenchyma DNA and protein in vivo. Cancer Res 32: 254–258, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  311. 311.
    Marquardt H, Sternberg SS, Phillips FS: 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and hepatic neoplasia in regenerating rat liver. Chem-Biol Interact 2: 401–403, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  312. 312.
    Janss DH, Ben TL: Age-related modification of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene binding to rat mammary gland DNA. J Natl Cancer Inst 60: 173–177, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  313. 313.
    Ekelman KE, Milo GE: Cellular uptake, transport and macromolecular binding of benzo(a)pyrene and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene by human cells in vitro. Cancer Res 38: 3026–3032, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. 314.
    Cleaver JE: Defective repair replication of DNA in Xeroderma pigmentosum. Nature 218: 652–656, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  315. 315.
    Setlow RB, Regan JD, German J, Carrier WL: Evidence that Xeroderma pigmentosum cells do not perform the first step in the repair of ultraviolet damage to their DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 64: 1035–1041, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. 316.
    Regan JD, Francis AA, Dunn WC, Hernandez O, Yagi H, Jerina DM: Repair of DNA damaged by mutagenic metabolites of benzo(a)pyrene in human cells. Chem-Biol Interact 20: 279–287, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  317. 317.
    Maher VM, Birch N, Otto JR, McCormick JJ: Cytotoxicity of carcinogenic aromatic amides in normal and Xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts with different DNA repair capabilities. J Natl Cancer Inst 54: 1287–1294, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  318. 318.
    Shìnohara K, Cerutti PA: Excision repair of benzo(a)pyrene-deoxyguanosine adducts in baby hamster kidney 21/C13 cells and in secondary mouse embryo fibroblasts C57BL/6J. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74: 979–983, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  319. 319.
    Day RS, Scudiero D, Dimattina M: Excision repair by human fibroblasts of DNA damaged by r-7, t-8-dihydroxy-t-9, 10-oxy-7, 8, 9, 10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene. Mut Res 50: 383–394, 1978.Google Scholar
  320. 320.
    Ikenaga M, Takebe H, Ishii Y: Excision repair of DNA base damage in human cells treated with the chemical carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide. Mut Res 43: 415–427, 1977.Google Scholar
  321. 321.
    Heflich RH, Hazzard RM, Lommel L, Scribner JD, Maher VM, McCormick JJ: A comparison of the DNA binding, cytotoxicity and repair synthesis induced in human fibroblasts by reactive derivatives of aromatic amide carcinogens. Chem-Biol Interact 29: 43–56, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  322. 322.
    Russel GR, Patrick EJ: Effects of variations in nucleoside pool sizes on comparisons of the incorporation of [3H]-thymidine into isolated rat liver cells. Cancer Res 40: 3719–3722, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. 323.
    Cleaver JE, Holford RM: Investigation into the incorporation of [3H]-thymidine into DNA of L strain cells and the formation of a pool of phosphorylated derivatives during pulse labeling. Biochem Biophys Acta 103: 654–671, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  324. 324.
    Hell E, Berry RJ, Lajtha LG: A pitfall in high specific activity tracer studies. Nature 185: 47, 1960.Google Scholar
  325. 325.
    Lambert B, Ringborg U, Skoog L: Age-related decrease of ultraviolet light-induced DNA repair synthesis in human peripheral leukocytes. Cancer Res 39: 2792–2795, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  326. 326.
    Williams GM: Detection of chemical carcinogens by unscheduled DNA synthesis in rat liver primary cell cultures. Cancer Res 37: 1845–1851, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  327. 327.
    Smith CA, Hanawalt PC: Repair replication in human cells. Simplified determination utilizing hydroxyurea. Biochem Biophys Acta 432: 336–347, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  328. 328.
    Dipple A, Hayes ME: Differential excision of carcinogenic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in mouse embryo cell cultures. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 91: 1225–1231, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  329. 329.
    Amacher DE, Elliott JA, Lieberman MW: Differences in removal of acetylaminofluorene and pyrimidine dimers from the DNA of cultured mammalian cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74: 1553–1557, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  330. 330.
    Slor H: Induction of unscheduled DNA synthesis by the carcinogen 7-bromomethylbenz(a)anthracene and its removal from the DNA of normal and Xeroderma pigmentosum lymphocytes. Mut Res 19: 231–235, 1973.Google Scholar
  331. 331.
    Heflich RH, Dorney DJ, Maher VM, McCormick JJ: Reactive derivatives of benzo(a)pyrene and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene cause Sl nuclease sensitive sites in DNA and ‘UV-like’ repair. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 77: 634–641, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  332. 332.
    Yang LL, Maher VM, McCormick JJ: Error-free excision of the cytotoxic, mutagenic N2-deoxyguanosine DNA adduct formed in human fibroblasts by (±)-7β,8α-dihydroxy-9α, 10α-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77: 5933–5937, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  333. 333.
    Dipple A, Roberts JJ: Excision of 7-bromomethylbenz(a) anthracene-DNA adducts in replicating mammalian cells. Biochemistry 16: 1499–1503, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  334. 334.
    Lieberman MW, Dipple A: Removal of bound carcinogen during DNA repair in nondividing human lymphocytes. Cancer Res 32: 1855–1860, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  335. 335.
    Feldman G, Remsen J, Shinohara K, Cerutti PA: Excisability and persistence of benzo(a)pyrene DNA adducts in epithelioid human lung cells. Nature 274: 796–798, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  336. 336.
    Dell'Orco RT, Whittle WL: Unscheduled DNA synthesis in confluent and mitotically arrested populations of aging human diploid fibroblasts. Mech Aging Dev 8: 269–279, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  337. 337.
    Goldstein S: The role of DNA repair in aging of cultured fibroblasts from Xeroderma pigmentosum and normals (35655). Proc Soc Exper Biol Med 137: 730–734, 1971.Google Scholar
  338. 338.
    Painter RB, Clarkson JM, Young BR: Ultraviolet-induced repair replication in aging diploid human cells (WI-38). Radiat Res 56: 560–564, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  339. 339.
    Geschickter CF: Diseases of the breast: Diagnosis, pathology, treatment. Lipincott, Philadelphia, 1945, pp 1–15.Google Scholar
  340. 340.
    Tanner JM: Growth at adolescence. Blackwell Scientific Publishing Ltd, Oxford, 1962.Google Scholar
  341. 341.
    Geschickter CF, Lewis D: Pregnancy and lactation changes in fibroadenoma of the breast. Br Med J 1: 499–504, 1938.Google Scholar
  342. 342.
    Russo JR, Wilgus G, Russo IH: Mammary gland differentiation as a determinant of tumor incidence after 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene administration (Abstract). Proc Mammary Cancer Exper Animals and Man 11: 51, 1978.Google Scholar
  343. 343.
    Russo J, Russo IH: Susceptibility of the mammary gland to carcinogenesis. II. Pregnancy interruption as a risk factor in tumor incidence. Am J Pathol 100: 497–511, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. 344.
    Jenssen HM, Wellings SR: Preneoplastic lesions of the human mammary gland transplanted into the nude athymic mouse. Cancer Res 36: 2605–2610, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  345. 345.
    Rifkind AB, Kalin HE, Ross GT: Follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH)and luteinizing hormone (LH) in the urine of prepubertal children, J Clin Invest 46: 1925–1931, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  346. 346.
    Meyer SJ: Cell proliferation in normal human breast ducts, fibroadenomas, and other ductal hyperplasias as measured by tritiated thymidine effects of menstrual phase, age and oral contraceptive hormones. Hum Pathol 8: 67–81, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishers 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jose Russo
    • 1
  • Lee K. Tay
    • 1
  • Irma H. Russo
    • 1
  1. 1.Experimental Pathology LaboratoryMichigan Cancer FoundationDetroitUSA

Personalised recommendations