Geologische Rundschau

, Volume 81, Issue 3, pp 695–716 | Cite as

Gravity-flow dominated sedimentation on the Buda paleoslope (Hungary): Record of Late Eocene continental escape of the Bakony unit

  • L. Fodor
  • A. Magyari
  • M. Kázmér
  • A. Fogarasi
Article

Abstract

The Upper Eocene sequence of the Buda Hills consists of fluvial and shallow marine conglomerates, sandstones, bioclastic shallow-water limestone, marlstone and pelagicGlobigerina marl. The succession illustrates rapid, overall subsidence of the area, from terrestrial environments to bathyal depths. Sedimentation occurred on slopes situated on the flanks of synsedimentary basement antiforms. Vertical growth of antiforms caused progressive tilting of beds, layer-parallel extension by boudinage and faulting, and induced redeposition by mass flow. Antiforms are localised in the dextral Budaörs shear zone and in the Buda imbricate stack, which accommodated the dextral displacement. The latter is underlain by blind reverse faults probably merging into a detachment fault at shallow depths. These structures were formed by WNW-ESE oriented compression and NNE-SSW directed tension. The morphological expression of the imbricate stack is the SE-facing Buda slope.

The Bakony unit, while “escaping” from the Alps, was bordered by a northern sinistral and a southern dextral shear zone. Synsedimentary tectonics in the Buda Hills demonstrates the style of deformation inside the escaping block, close to the southern border zone. Tectonically controlled sedimentation suggests that escape tectonics was active as early as Late Eocene time.

Zusammenfassung

Die obereozäne Folge der Budaer Berge wird aus fluviatilen und Abtragungskonglomeraten, Sandsteinen, bioklastischen Flachwasserkalken, Mergelgesteinen sowie pelagischenGlobigerina-Mergeln aufgebaut. Die Abfolge weist eine rapide, im gesamten Gebiet vonstatten gehende Absenkung von kontinentaler Entwicklung bis zu bathyalen Tiefen nach.

Die Sedimentation tritt auf Paläoabhängen an den Flanken von synsedimentären Antiklinalen auf Gesteinen des Basements auf. Die Hebung der Antiklinalen verursachte eine progressive Kippung der Sedimente eine schichtparallele Dehnung, durch Boudinage und Verwerfungen und induzierte eine Umlagerung durch Massenströme. Die Antiklinalen sind staffelförmig in der rechtsdrehenden Scherzone von Budaörs und in der verschuppten Brandungssäule von Buda angeordnet, die die Verwerfung begleiten. Die Zone von Buda korrespondiert zu einem SE-vergenten komplexen Abhang. Es liegt eine Unterlagerung von antithetischen Blindverwerfungen vor, die vermutlich in geringer Tiefe in eine Abscherungsverwerfung Übergeht. Alle Strukturen wurden durch WNW-ESE gerichtete Kompressionen und NNE-SSW orientierte Dehnungen geformt.

Die Einheit des Bakony war während der Abtrennung von den Alpen umgrenzt durch eine nördliche sinistrale und eine südliche dextrale Scherzone. Die synsedimentäre Tektonik in den Budaer Bergen demonstriert den Deformationsstil innerhalb des abwandernden Blockes eng an der südlichen Grenzzone. Die tektonisch kontrollierte Sedimentation unterstreicht, dass die Ausquetschungstektonik bis in das späte Eozän hinein aktiv war.

Résumé

La séquence sédimentaire d'âge éocène supérieur des collines de Buda est constituée de conglomérats fluviatiles et marins, de grès, de calcaires bioclastiques et de marnes néritiques ou pélagiques àGlobigerina. Cette succession correspond à une subsidence rapide, régionale, passant d'un environnement terrestre à un environnement bathial. La sédimentation s'est effectuée sur les pentes situées sur les flancs des anticlinaux synsédimentaires. Le soulèvement de ces anticlinaux a provoqué le basculement progressif des couches, une extension parallèle à la stratification avec boudinage et fractures, ainsi que le remaniement de sédiments par divers écoulements gravitaires. Les anticlinaux se situent dans la zone décrochante de Budaörs dont le déplacement dextre a été accompagné par un système d'écailles: la zone de Buda. Cette zone correspond à une pente complexe sédimentaire à vergence SE. Elle est caractérisée par des failles inverses aveugles qui se raccordent probablement à faible profondeur à une surface de décollement. Toutes ces structures ont été engendrées par une compression WNW-ESE et une extension NNE-SSW.

Durant l'échappement continental, l'unité de Bakony était bordée au nord par une zone cisaillante sénestre et au sud par une zone cisaillante dextre. La tectonique synsédimentaire dans les collines de Buda montre le style de la déformation à l'intérieur du bloc séparé, près de sa limite méridionale. La sédimentation, régie par la tectonique, indique que l'échappement continental avait déjà commencé à l'Eocène supérieur.

Краткое содержание

Верхнеэоценовая тол ща Будайских гор пред ставлена абразионными конгло мератами, песчаниками, биообло мочными известнякам и, мергелями и пелагиче скими глобегериновы ми мергелями. Эта послед овательность осадко в отображает быстрое в сеобщее проседание района от верхнего ур овня континента до ба тиальных глубин. Накопление ос адков происходило на древних склонах, ра сположенных на флангах синседимент ационных антиклинал ей фундамента. Поднятие антиклиналей вызвал о прогрессивное накло нение слоев, растяжен ие, отмечаемое будинаже м и разломами, и переот ложение вещества с потоками м ассы. Антиклинали простираются в право сторонней Будаершской зоне сдв игов Будайской чешуй чатой области, в которой нак опился меланж. Будайская зона соотв етствует сложному склону, обращенному н а юго-восток. Она подст илается скрытыми взбросами, в ероятно припаянными к зоне срыва на неболь шой глубине. Все эти структуры обр азовались при сжатии в простирании WNW–OSO и раст яжении в направлении NNO-SSW.

Баконьские структур ные элементы, выжимае мые из Альп, были ограниче ны левым сдвигом на севере и пр авым на юге. Синседиме нтационная тактоника в Будайски х горах демонстрирует стиль деформации внутри выжимаемого блока, ра сположенного вблизи южной границы. Осадко накопление, контроли руемое тектоникой, свидетел ьствует о том, что выжимание имело мест о уже в позднем эоцене.

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Copyright information

© Ferdinand Enke Verlag Stuttgart 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Fodor
    • 1
  • A. Magyari
    • 1
  • M. Kázmér
    • 2
  • A. Fogarasi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeologyEötvös UniversityBudapestHungary
  2. 2.Department of PalaeontologyEötvös UniversityBudapestHungary

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