Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy

, Volume 33, Issue 5, pp 285–292 | Cite as

Comparative efficacy of liposomes containing synthetic bacterial cell wall analogues for tumoricidal activation of monocytes and macrophages

  • Teruhiro Utsugi
  • Akihiko Nii
  • Dominic Fan
  • Charles C. Pak
  • Yvonne Denkins
  • Peter van Hoogevest
  • Isaiah J. Fidler
Original articles


We examined the activation to the tumoricidal state of normal mouse peritoneal exudate macrophages, bone marrow macrophages, and human blood monocytes by liposomes containing either lipophilic muramyl tripeptide (CGP 19 835) or a new synthetic analogue of lipoprotein from gram-negative bacteria outer wall, CGP 31 362, or combinations of the two. The superiority of liposomes containing the synthetic lipopeptide over liposomes containing lipophilic muramyl tripeptide for in vitro activation of monocytes and macrophages was demonstrated in several experiments. First, liposome-CGP-19 835 activated monocytes only in the presence of interferon-γ, whereas activation with liposome-CGP 31 362 was interferon-independent. Second, activation of both mouse macrophages and human blood monocytes by liposome-CGP 31 362 occurred at a lower liposomal concentration than that by liposome-CGP 19 835. Third, monocytes incubated with liposome-CGP 31 362 released both tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1 activities, whereas monocytes treated with liposome-CGP 19 835 (in the absence of interferon-γ) released only TNF activity. These data suggest that liposomes containing the synthetic lipopeptide CGP 31 362 are superior to liposomes containing CGP 19 835 for systemic activation of macrophages.

Key words

Liposomes Synthetic lipopeptides, Monocyte activation Macrophage activation 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Teruhiro Utsugi
    • 1
  • Akihiko Nii
    • 1
  • Dominic Fan
    • 1
  • Charles C. Pak
    • 1
  • Yvonne Denkins
    • 1
  • Peter van Hoogevest
    • 2
  • Isaiah J. Fidler
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Cell Biology (HMB 173)The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer CenterHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Research and Development LaboratoriesPharmaceutical Division, Ciba-Geigy Ltd.BaselSwitzerland

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