Heart and Vessels

, Volume 9, Issue 3, pp 155–166 | Cite as

Characteristics of left-ventricular isovolumic pressure waves in isolated dog hearts

  • David M. Regen
  • Patrick K. Denton
  • William C. Howe
  • L. Katherine Taylor
  • David E. Hansen


The peak pressure which a chamber would develop in isovolumic contraction at end-diastolic distention (peak source pressure) is an expression of contractile vigor and a determinant of systolic performance. One can predict source pressure of an ejecting beat by fitting its isovolumic phases with a model isovolumic-wave function. Characteristics of the left-ventricular isovolumic pressure wave (amplitude, duration, shape) were studied in isolated, perfused, artificially loaded dog hearts, where strictly isovolumic conditions could be obtained over a wide range of cavity volumes at constant heart rate and approximately constant contractile state. The characterization involved two steps: (1) beginning and ending points were identified by a transition-locating algorithm, and (2) Fourier analysis was performed on points in between. The amplitude of the isovolumic pressure wave increased with cavity volume as expected, the duration of contraction increased with cavity volume, and the shape of the wave (normalized Fourier coefficients) depended slightly on the cavity volume. Duration of contraction declined slightly with increasing heart rate, but the shape of the isovolumic pressure wave was independent of heart rate. The mean shape was similar to that found in dog hearts subjected to one-beat aortic-root clamping in vivo — the wave being less sharply peaked than a cosine wave and tilted to the left because relaxation was slower than contraction. When ejecting beats were produced with a Windkessel model, ejecting-beat duration declined linearly with increasing ejection fraction. This relation could be used to predict the duration of the isovolumic beat corresponding to the duration of an ejecting beat. Source pressure could then be predicted by fitting a model isovolumic wave of predicted duration to the isovolumic contraction phase of the ejecting beat. In 270 comparisons, the ratio of predicted peak source pressure to observed peak source pressure was 1.04 ± 0.10 (SD). This method provides a reasonably accurate prediction of an important determinant of systolic performance.

Key words

Ventricular function Source pressure Shortening deactivation 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Sagawa K, Suga H, Shoukas AA, Bakalar KM (1977) End-systolic pressure-volume ratio: a new index of contractility. Am J Cardiol 40:748–753Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Weber KT, Janicki JS, Hefner LL (1976) Left ventricular force-length relations of isovolumic and ejecting contractions. Am J Physiol 231:337–343Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Miller WP, Flygenring BP, Nellis SH (1988) Effects of load alteration and coronary perfusion pressure on regional end-systolic relations. Circulation 78:1299–1309Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Suga H, Hisano R, Goto Y, Yamada O (1984) Normalization of the end-systolic pressure-volume relation and Emax of different sized hearts. Jap Circ J 48:136–143Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sagawa K (1978) The ventricular pressure-volume diagram revisited. Circ Res 43:677–687Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Regen DM (1988) Independent determinants of systolic effectiveness: growth ability, contractility and mobility. J Theor Biol 132:61–81Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Regen DM (1989) Evaluation of systolic effectiveness and its determinants: pressure/midwall-volume relations. Am J Physiol 257:H2070–2080Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Burkhoff D, Sugiura S, Yue DT, Sagawa K (1987) Contractility-dependent curvilinearity of end-systolic pressure-volume relations. Am J Physiol 252:H1218–1227Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Little WC, Park RC, Freeman GL (1987) Effects of regional ischemia and ventricular pacing on LV dP/dtmax-end-diastolic volume relation. Am J Physiol 252:H933–940Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kass DA, Maughan WL (1988) From ‘Emax’ to pressurevolume relations: A broader view. Circulation 77:1203–1212Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Igarashi Y, Suga H (1986) Assessment of slope of endsystolic pressure-volume line of in situ dog heart. Am J Physiol 250:H685–692Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sagawa K, Sunagawa K, Maughan WL (1985) Ventricular end-systolic pressure-volume relations. In: Levine HJ, Gaasch WH (eds) The ventricle: basic and clinical aspects. Nijhoff, Boston, pp 79–103Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sunagawa K, Hayashida K, Sugimachi M, Noma M, Ando H, Tajimi T, Tomoike H, Nose Y, Nakamura M (1989) Ventriculo-arterial matching in exercising dogs. In: Sideman S, Beyar R (eds) Analysis and simulation of the cardiac system — ischemia. CRC, Boca Raton, pp 89–98Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Takeuchi M, Igarashi Y, Tomimoto S, Odake M, Hayashi T, Tsukamoto T, Hata K, Takaoka H, Fukuzaki H (1991) Single-beat estimation of the slope of the endsystolic pressure-volume relation in the human left ventricle. Circulation 83:202–222Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Regen DM, Nonogi H, Hess OM (1990) Estimation of left-ventricular systolic performance and its determinants in man from pressures and dimensions of one beat; effects of aortic-valve stenosis and replacement. Heart Vessels 6:31–47Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sunagawa K, Yamada A, Senda Y, Kikuchi Y, Nakamura M, Shibahara T, Nose Y (1980) Estimation of the hydromotive source pressure from ejecting beats of the left ventricle. Trans Biomed Eng 27:299–305Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Regen DM, Howe WC, Peterson JT, Little WC (1993) Characteristics of single isovolumic left-ventricular pressure waves of dog hearts in situ. Heart Vessels 8:136–148Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hansen DE, Borganelli M, Stacy GP, Taylor LK (1991) Dose-dependent inhibition of stretch-induced arrhythmias by gadolinium in isolated canine ventricles: evidence for a unique mode of antiarrhythmic action. Circ Res 69:820–831Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hansen DE (1993) Mechanoelectrical feedback effects of altering preload, afterload, and ventricular shortening. Am J Physiol 264:H423–432Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Smyth NPD, Magassy CL (1970) Experimental heart block in the dog: an improved method. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 59:201–205Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hansen DE, Craig CS, Hondeghem LM (1990) Stretchinduced arrhythmias in the isolated canine ventricle: Evidence for the importance of mechanoelectrical feedback. Circulation 81:1094–1105Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sunagawa K, Burkhoff D, Lim KO, Sagawa K (1982) Impedance loading servo pump system for excised canine ventricle. Am J Physiol 243:H346–350Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sunagawa K, Lim KO, Burkhoff D, Sagawa K (1982) Microprocessor control of a ventricular volume servopump. Ann Biomed Eng 10:145–159Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Suga H, Yamakoshi K (1977) Effects of stroke volume and velocity of ejection on end-systolic pressure of canine left ventricles. Circ Res 40:445–450Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kaufmann RL, Bayer RM, Harnasch C (1972) Autoregulation of contractility in the myocardial cell; displacement as a controlling parameter. Pfluegers Arch 332:96–116Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bodem R, Sonnenblick EH (1974) Deactivation of contraction by quick release in the isolated papillary muscle of the cat. Circ Res 34:214–225Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hunter WC (1989) End-systolic pressure as a balance between opposing effects of ejection. Circ Res 64:265–275Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Parmley WW, Chuck L (1973) Length-dependent changes in myocardial contractile state. Am J Physiol 224:1195–1199Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lakatta EG, Jewell BR (1977) Length-dependent activation; its effects on the length-tension relation in cat ventricular muscle. Circ Res 40:251–257Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Su JB, Crozatier B (1989) Preload-induced curvilinearity of left ventricular end systolic pressure-volume relations: effects on derived indexes in closed-chest dogs. Circulation 79:431–440Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Toombs CF, Vinten-Johansen J, Yokoyama H, Johnston WE, Julian JS, Cordell AR (1991) Nonlinearity of indexes of left ventricular performance: effects on estimation of slope and diameter axis intercepts. Am J Physiol 260:H1802–1809Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kass DA, Beyar R, Lankford E, Heard M, Maughan WL, Sagawa K (1989) Influence of contractile state on curviliniarity of in situ end-systolic pressure-volume relations. Circulation 79:167–178Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Pidgeon J, Miller GAH, Noble MIM, Papadoyannis D, Seed WA (1982) The relationship between the strength of the human heart beat and the interval between beats. Circulation 65:1404–1410Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mahler F, Yoran C, Ross J (1974) Inotropic effect of tachycardia and poststimulation potentiation in the conscious dog. Am J Physiol 227:569–575Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Regen DM, Maurer CR (1986) Evaluation of myocardial properties from image/pressure data: Chronic conditions. J Theor Biol 120:31–61Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wisenbaugh T, Elion JL, Nissen SE (1987) Influence of aortic valve disease on systolic stiffness of the human left ventricular myocardium. Circulation 75:964–972Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Shroff SG, Janicki JS, Weber KT (1985) Evidence and quantitation of left ventricular systolic resistance. Am J Physiol 249:H358–370Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Little WC, Freeman GL (1987) Description of LV pressure-volume relations by time-varying elastance and source resistance. Am J Physiol 253:H83–90Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Campbell KB, Kirkpatrick RD, Knowlen GG, Ringo JA (1990) Late-systolic pumping properties of the left ventricle: Deviation from elastance-resistance behavior. Circ Res 68:1532–1548Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Campbell KB, Shroff SG, Kirkpatrick RD (1991) Shorttime-scale left ventricular systolic dynamics: Evidence for a common mechanism in both left ventricle and heart muscle mechanics. Circ Res 68:1532–1548Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Suga H, Kitabatake A, Sagawa K (1979) End-systolic pressure determines stroke volume from fixed enddiastolic volume in the isolated canine left ventricle under a constant contractile state. Circ Res 44:238–249Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • David M. Regen
    • 1
  • Patrick K. Denton
    • 2
  • William C. Howe
    • 1
  • L. Katherine Taylor
    • 2
  • David E. Hansen
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Molecular Physiology and BiophysicsVanderbilt University School of MedicineNashvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of MedicineVanderbilt University School of MedicineNashvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations