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Orthopédie Traumatologie

, Volume 2, Issue 2, pp 89–93 | Cite as

Scolioses idiopathiques et congénitales

  • G. D. MacEwen
  • Cl. Karger
Revues générales
  • 19 Downloads

Résumé

D'étiologie toujours inconnue, la scoliose idiopathique de l'adolescent ne peut être traitée efficacement que si le dépistage est très précoce, entre 8 et 10 ans. La preuve de l'évolutivité angulaire doit être faite avant d'entreprendre un traitement orthopédique, dont l'objectif sera de contrôler l'aggravation liée à la poussée de croissance pubertaire. De nouveaux protocoles à temps partiel sont actuellement à l'étude et s'adresseront à des courbures peu sévères et bien réductibles. Les indications opératoires sont posées en cas d'échec ou d'intolérance au traitement orthopédique. Les limites angulaires pour de telles interventions semblent diminuer progressivement, les techniques devenant plus fiables. On accorde par ailleurs de plus en plus d'importance au plan sagittal, compte tenu de la mauvaise tolérance à long terme des lordoses thoraciques. Malgré les progrès techniques, la réalisation d'une arthrodèse solide avec une greffe abondante reste le seul garant de la stabilité angulaire. L'évolution et l'histoire naturelle des courbures congénitales du rachis sont actuellement bien connues, ainsi que les malformations viscérales habituellement associées. La surveillance radiographique dès le plus jeune âge permet d'évaluer l'asymétrie de croissance vertébrale dans le plan frontal et sagittal. Ceci permet de proposer en cas d'évolutivité un traitement à visée étiologique précoce, sous forme d'une hémi arthrodèse et épiphysiodèse convexe, antérieure et postérieure pour freiner l'hypercroissance du côté de la malformation. Pour les formes dépistées plus tardivement, une greffe postérieure avec ou sans matériel est l'indication classique, en évitant absolument toute manoeuvre de distraction qui comporte un risque de complication neurologique, en particulier en cas de composante cyphotique associée.

Idiopathic and congenital scoliosis

Summary

The exact etiology of idiopathic scoliosis is still unknown and therefore the only way to improve the prognosis is to recommend an early screening program, between 8 and 10 years of age. Angular progression must be proven for every curve before any brace application. The goal of such a treatment is to control curve progression during the adolescent growth spur. Recent part-time bracing programs have been proposed for low angle and flexible curves. Surgery is indicated in case of failure or non compliance of the conservative treatment. Currently the angular limits for surgery seem to decrease, as a result of improved surgical techniques. Sagittal unbalance and loss of thoracic lordosis are of major importance for the treatment choice, since their poor outcome in the adult population. Despite technical improvements, the quality of a solid fusion is the most important factor for long lasting results. The natural history and evolution of congenital spine deformities have been precisely documented, as well as the frequently associated visceral problems. Repeated curve measurements in young children will evaluate the growth potential asymetry in the coronal and sagittal planes. In case of rapidly progressive curves, an early surgical treatment can be proposed, consisting in convex anterior and posterior hemiarthrodesis, producing an epiphysiodesis effect of the overgrowing convex side. For cases diagnosed in older ages, the classic indication is a posterior fusion, with or without instrumentation. It is important to avoid any excessive distraction, because of a high risk of neurological complications, especially in case of an associated kyphotic deformity.

Key words

Idiopathic scoliosis Congenital scoliosis 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. D. MacEwen
    • 1
  • Cl. Karger
    • 2
  1. 1.Children's HospitalNew OrleansUSA
  2. 2.Unité d'Orthopédie PédiatriqueCentre de Traumatologie et d'Orthopédie-CRAMIllkirch CedexFrance

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