Mastzelle und Mastzelldegranulation

Zusammenfassung

Elektronenmikroskopische Beobachtungen an Gewebe-Mastzellen unterschiedlicher Herkunft und Vorbehandlung ergaben:

I. Die Mastzelle erweist sich unter verschiedenen Bedingungen als polymorph. Ihre Morphologie ist Ausdruck des Funktionszustandes. Verursacht ist die variable Zellmorphologie durch die Bildung und Ausschüttung der mastzellspezifischen Granula. Beide Prozesse sind Teile eines offenbar energieverbrauchenden Prozesses, der elektronenmikroskopisch unter einem bestimmten morphologischen Muster abläuft. Die voneinander abweichenden Zellformen sind Zustandsbilder von Sekretbildung und Sekretabgabe.

II. Polymorph sind auch die Mastzellgranula. Es ist wahrscheinlich, daß diese morphologische Polymorphie den Ausdruck einer jeweils verschiedenen chemischen Zusammensetzung darstellt.

Die genaue Lokalisation der Granula-Entstehung ist weiterhin unklar. Ihre Reifung und Ausschüttung können jedoch experimentell ausgelöst und morphologisch verfolgt werden.

Die Granula-Ausschüttung kann eintreten als

  1. a)

    sekretorische Degranulierung (humoraler Reiz in vivo? kleine Dosis der Substanz 48/80). Die Granula treten aus.

  2. b)

    Degranulation durch Zellzerfall (toxisch-allergische Prozesse, hohe Dosen der Substanz 48/80). Die Granula werden frei.

  3. c)

    Degranulation durch Vacuolisierung (physikalische und chemische Reize, Toxineinwirkung). Die Granula verschwinden.

Die Reaktion der Zelle auf verschiedene Reize ist je nach Art und Dosishöhe der einwirkenden Noxe verschieden.

Summary

The structure of mast cells in some skin diseases and in mast cells neoplasias (diffuse mastocytosis, nodular mastocytoma) has been studied with the electron microscope.

The electron microscopical findings suggest that the morphology of the mast cell varies according to the functional state of the cell and the maturation of specific granules. During their maturation the mast cell granules show different structures, probably related to the variing chemical composition.

It is unknown where the mast cell granules are produced (endoplasmic reticulum? Golgi-zone?). The maturation and release, however, have a distinct morphological pattern and can be followed up with the electron microscope.

According to our findings there are three different types of degranulation:

  1. 1

    secretory degranulation (humoral mechanisms, low dosis of compound 48/80). The granules are pushed out.

  2. 2

    Degranulation by cell destruction (strong allergic reactions, high dosis of compound 48/80). The granules are liberated.

  3. 3

    Degranulation by formation of vacuoles (physically or chemically induced trauma, influence of toxins). The granules dissapear.

With other words the type of the granula-release depends on the kind and the amount of the releaser.

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Orfanos, C. Mastzelle und Mastzelldegranulation. Klin Wochenschr 44, 1177–1182 (1966). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01742094

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