Advertisement

Environmental Geochemistry and Health

, Volume 12, Issue 1–2, pp 28–49 | Cite as

The chemistry of aluminum in the environment

  • Charles T. Driscoll
  • William D. Schecher
Article

Abstract

There is increased concern over the effects of elevated concentrations of Al in the environment. Unfortunately, studies of the environmental chemistry and toxicity of Al have been limited by our understanding of the processes regulating the aqueous concentration, speciation and bioavailability of this element.

Although Al is the most abundant metallic element in the Earth's crust, it is highly insoluble and generally unavailable to participate in biogeochemical reactions. However, under highly acidic or alkaline conditions, or in the presence of complexing ligands, elevated concentrations may be mobilized to the aquatic environment. Ecologically significant concentrations of Al have been reported in surface waters draining “acid-sensitive” regions that are receiving elevated inputs of acidic deposition. Acid- sensitive watersheds are characterized by limited release of basic cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+) and/or retention of strong acid anions (SO42−, NO3, Cl). Under these conditions inputs of strong acids are not completely neutralized, but rather acidic water is exported from the terrestrial environment. It has been hypothesized that acidic deposition to acid-sensitive watersheds mobilizes Al within the mineral soil, causing elevated concentrations in soil solutions and surface waters. As a result of mineral phase solubility constraints, concentrations of aqueous Al increase exponentially with decreases in pH below 6.0.

Monomeric Al occurs as a series of complexes in the aqueous environment, including aquo, OH, F, SO42−, HCO3 and organic species. Of these aquo, OH, F and organic complexes are the most significant in natural waters.

Elevated concentrations of Al are ecologically significant because: 1) Al is an important pH buffer in acidic waters, regulating the lower limit of pH values following acidification by strong acids; 2) through adsorption and coagulation reactions, Al may alter the cycling and availability of important elements like phosphorus, organic carbon and certain trace metals; 3) Al may serve as a coagulant facilitating the removal of light attenuating materials, thereby increasing the clarity and decreasing the thermal stability of lakes; and 4) Al is potentially toxic to organisms. Better understanding of the chemistry and speciation of Al is essential to assess these effects.

Keywords

Strong Acid Elevated Concentration Basic Cation Acidic Deposition Acidic Water 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alfrey, A.C. 1987. Aluminum metabolism and toxicity.Proc. Am. Chem. Soc., Division of Environmental Chemistry,27, 458–459.Google Scholar
  2. Aimer, B., Dickson, W., Ekstrom, C., Horastrom, E. and Miller, U. 1974. Effects of acidification on Swedish lakes.Ambio,3, 30–36.Google Scholar
  3. Backes, J.P. and Tipping, E. 1987. Aluminum complexation by an aquatic humic fraction under acidic conditions.Wat. Res.,21, 211–216.Google Scholar
  4. Baker, J.P. 1982. Effects on fish of metals associated with acidification. In: R.E. Johnson (ed.),Acid Rain/Fisheries, pp.165–176. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda.Google Scholar
  5. Baker, J.P. and Schofield, C.L. 1982. Aluminum toxicity to fish in acidic waters.Wat. Air Soil Pollut.,18, 289–309.Google Scholar
  6. Ball, J.W., Nordstrom, D.K. and Jenne, E.A. 1980. Additional and Revised Thermochemical Data for WATEQ-2 Computerized Model for Trace and Major Element Speciation and Mineral Equilibria of Natural Waters, U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Investigations, Menlo Park.Google Scholar
  7. Barnes, R.B. 1975. The determination of specific forms of aluminum in natural water.Chem. Geol.,15, 177–191.Google Scholar
  8. Bloom, P.R. 1983. The kinetics of gibbsite dissolution in nitric acid.J. Soil Sci. Soc. Am.,47, 164–168.Google Scholar
  9. Bloom, P.R. and Erich, M.S. 1989. The quantitation of aqueous aluminum. In: G. Sposito (ed.),Environmental Chemistry of Aluminum, pp. 1–27. CRC Press, Boca Raton.Google Scholar
  10. Bloom, P.R., McBride, M.C. and Weaver, R.M. 1979. Aluminum organic matter in acidic soils: buffering and solution aluminum activity.J. Soil Sci. Soc. Am.,43, 488–493.Google Scholar
  11. Bohn, H.L., McNeal, B.L. and O'Conner, G.A. 1985.Soil Chemistry. Wiley-Interscience, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Bowen, H.J.M. 1966.Trace Elements in Biochemistry, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  13. Brown, D.J.A. 1983. Effect of calcium and aluminum concentrations on the survival of brown trout (Salmo trutta) at low pH.Bull. Environ. Contamin. Toxicol.,30, 582–583.Google Scholar
  14. Browne, B.A., Driscoll, C.T. and McColl, J.C. 1989. Speciation of aqueous aluminum using morin: II. principles and procedures.J. Environ. Qual. (in press).Google Scholar
  15. Browne, B.A., McColl, J.C. and Driscoll, C.T. 1989. Speciation of aqueous aluminum in dilute acidic waters using morin: I. the chemistry of morin and its complexes with aluminum.J. Environ. Qual. (in press).Google Scholar
  16. Campbell, P.G.L., Bisson, M., Brougie, R., Tessier, A. and Villenuve, J.P. 1983. Speciation of aluminum in acidic freshwaters.Analyt. Chem.,55, 2246–2252.Google Scholar
  17. Chenery, E.M. 1948. Aluminum in the plant world: I. general survey in dicatyledons. Royal Botanical Gardens Kew,2, 173.Google Scholar
  18. Clark, K. and LaZerte, B.D. 1985. A laboratory study of the effects of aluminum on amphibian eggs and tadpoles.Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.,42, 1544–1551.Google Scholar
  19. Clarke, F.W. and Washington, H.S. 1924. The Composition of the Earth's Crust, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Papers 127.Google Scholar
  20. Cosby, B.J., Hornberger, G.M. and Galloway, J.N. 1985. Modeling the effects of acid deposition: assessment of a lumped parameter model of soil water and streamwater chemistry.Wat. Resour. Res.,21, 51–63.Google Scholar
  21. Coulson, C.B., Davies, R.I. and Lewis, D.A. 1960a. Polyphenols in leaves, litter and superficial humus from mull sites.J. Soil Sci.,11, 20–29.Google Scholar
  22. Coulson, C.B., Davies, R.I. and Lewis, D.A. 1960b. Polyphenols in plant, humus and soil: II. reduction and transport by polyphenols of iron in model soil.J. Soil Sci.,11, 30–44.Google Scholar
  23. Cronan, C.S. and Schofield, C.L. 1979. Aluminum leaching response to acid precipitation: effects on high elevation watersheds in the Northeast.Science,204, 304–306.Google Scholar
  24. Cronan, C.S., Walker, W.J. and Bloom, P.R. 1986. Predicting aqueous aluminum concentrations in natural waters.Nature,324, 140–143.Google Scholar
  25. David, M.B. and Driscoll, C.T. 1984. Aluminum Speciation and equilibria in soil solutions of a Haplorthod in the Adirondack Mountains, New York.Geoderma,33, 297–318.Google Scholar
  26. Davis, J.A. 1982. Adsorption of natural dissolved organic matter at the oxide/water interface.Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta,46, 681–692.Google Scholar
  27. Davis, J.A. and Gloor, R. 1981. Adsorption of dissolved organics in lake water by aluminum oxide.Environ. Sci. Technol.,15, 1223–1229.Google Scholar
  28. DeConnick, F. 1980. Major mechanisms in formation of spodic horizons.Geoderma,24, 101–128.Google Scholar
  29. Dickson, W. 1978. Some effects of the acidification of Swedish lakes.Verh. Int. Ver. Limnol.,20, 851–856.Google Scholar
  30. Dougan, W.K. and Wilson, A.L. 1974. The absorptiometric determination of aluminum in water: a comparison of some chromogenic reagents and the development of an improved method.Analyst,99, 413–430.Google Scholar
  31. Driscoll, C.T. 1984. A procedure for the fractionation of aqueous aluminum in dilute acidic waters.International J. Environ. Analyt. Chem.,16, 267–283.Google Scholar
  32. Driscoll, C.T., Baker, J.P., Bisogni, J.J. and Schofield, C.L. 1980. Effect of aluminum Speciation on fish in dilute acidified waters.Nature,284, 161–164.Google Scholar
  33. Driscoll, C.T., Baker, J.P., Bisogni, J.J. and Schofield, C.L. 1984. Aluminum Speciation in dilute acidified surface waters in the Adirondack region of New York State. In: O.R. Bricker (ed.),Precipitation: Geologic Aspects, pp.55–75. Butterworth, Boston.Google Scholar
  34. Driscoll, C.T. and Bisogni, J.J. 1984. Weak acid/base systems in dilute acidified lakes and streams in the Adirondack region of New York State. In: J.L. Schnoor (ed.),Modeling of Total Acid Precipitation Impacts, pp.53–72. Butterworth, Boston.Google Scholar
  35. Driscoll, C.T. and Newton, R.M. 1985. Chemical characteristics of acid-sensitive lakes in the Adirondack region of New York.Environ. Sci. Technol.,19, 1018–1024.Google Scholar
  36. Driscoll, C.T. and Schafran, G.C. 1984. Characterization of short term changes in the base neutralizing capacity of an acidic Adirondack, NY, lake.Nature,310, 308–310.Google Scholar
  37. Driscoll, C.T. and Schecher, W.D. 1988. Aluminum in the environment In: A. Sigel (eds.),Metal Ions in Biological Systems. Vol.24. Aluminum and its Role in Biology, pp. 59–122. Marcel Dekker, New York, (in press).Google Scholar
  38. Driscoll, C.T., van Breemen, N. and Mulder, J. 1985. Aluminum chemistry in a forested Spodosol.J. Soil Sci. Soc. Am.,49, 437–444.Google Scholar
  39. Driscoll, C.T., White, J.R., Schafran, G.C. and Rendall, J.D. 1982. Calcium carbonate neutralization of acidified surface waters.J. Environ. Engineering Div. ASCE,108, 1128–1145.Google Scholar
  40. Driscoll, C.T., Yatsko, C.P. and Unangst, F.J. 1987. Longitudinal and temporal trends in the water chemistry of the North Branch of the Moose River.Biogeochemistry,3, 37–63.Google Scholar
  41. Dryssen, D., Haraldsson, C., Nyberg, E. and Wedborg, M. 1987. Complexation of aluminum with DNA.J. Inorg. Biochem.,29, 67–75.Google Scholar
  42. Durum, W.H. and Haffty, J. 1963. Implications of the minor element content of some major streams of the world.Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta,27, 1–11.Google Scholar
  43. Effler, S.W., Schafran, G.C. and Driscoll, C.T. 1985. Partitioning light attenuation in an acidic lake.Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.,42, 1707–1711.Google Scholar
  44. Erickson, E. 1981. Aluminum in groundwater possible solution equilibria.Nordic Hydrol.,12, 43–50.Google Scholar
  45. Farmer, V.C. and Fraser, A.R., 1982. Chemical and colloidal stability of soils in the Al203-Fe203-Si02-H2O system: their role in podzolization.J. Soil Sci,33, 737–742.Google Scholar
  46. Farmer, V.C., Russell, J.D. and Berrow, M.L. 1980. Imogolite and proto-imogolite allophane in spodic horizons: evidence for a mobile aluminum silicate complex in podzol formation.J. Soil Sci.,31, 673–684.Google Scholar
  47. Foy, C.D. 1974. Effects of aluminum on plant growth. In: E.W. Carson (ed.).The Plant Root and its Environment, pp.601–642. University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville.Google Scholar
  48. Garrels, R.M., MacKenzie, F.T. and Hunt, C. 1975.Chemical Cycles and the Global Environment. Wm Kaufman Inc, Los Altos.Google Scholar
  49. Gherini, S.A., Mok, L., Hudson, R.J.M., Davis, G.F., Chen, C.W. and Goldstein, R.A. 1985. The ILWAS model: formulation and application.Wat. Air Soil Pollut.,26, 425–459.Google Scholar
  50. Glover, G.M. and Webb, A.H. 1979. Weak and strong acids in the surface waters of the Tovdal region in southern Norway.Wat. Res.,13, 781–783.Google Scholar
  51. Gosh, K. and Schnitzner, M. 1981. Macromolecular structure of humic substances.Soil Sci,129, 266–276.Google Scholar
  52. Green, J. 1959. Geochemical table of the elements for 1959.Bull. Geol. Soc. Am.,70, 1127.Google Scholar
  53. Haines, T. A. and Akielaszek, J.J. A Regional Study of the Chemistry of Headwater Lakes and Streams in New England: Vulnerability to Acidification, Air Pollution and Acid Rain, Report No.15. FWS/OBS-80/40/15. USDA Fish and Wildlife Service.Google Scholar
  54. Hall, R.J., Driscoll, C.T., Likens, G.E. and Pratt, J.M. 1985. Physical, chemical and biological consequences of episodic aluminum additions to a stream.Limnol. Oceanogr.,30, 212–220.Google Scholar
  55. Haug, A. 1984. Molecular aspects of aluminum toxicity.CRC Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences,1, 345–373.Google Scholar
  56. Hedlund, T., Sjoberg, S. and Ohman, L.O. 1987. Equilibrium and structural studies of silicon (TV) and aluminum (III) in aqueous solution. 15. a potentiometric study of a speciation and equilibria in the Al-CO2(g)-OH system.Acta Chem. Scand.,41, 197–207.Google Scholar
  57. Helliwell, S., Batley, G.E., Florence, T.M. and Lumsden, B.G. 1983. Speciation and toxicity of aluminum in a model fresh water.Environ. Technol. Lett.,4, 141–144.Google Scholar
  58. Hem, J.D. 1968. Graphical Methods for Studies of Aqueous Aluminum Hydroxide, Fluoride and Sulfate complexes, U.S. Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 1827-B., Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  59. Hem, J.D. 1978. Abundance (of aluminum) in natural waters and the atmosphere. In: K.H. Wedepohl (ed.),Handbook of Geochemistry, pp.132–133. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  60. Hem, J.D. 1986. Geochemistry and aqueous chemistry of aluminum. In: J.W. Coburn and A.C. Alfrey (eds.),Kidney International, pp. S3-S7. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  61. Hem, J.D., Robertson, C.E., Lind, C.J. and Polzer, W.L. 1973. Chemical Interactions of Aluminum with Aqueous Silica at 25C, U.S. Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 1827-E., Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  62. Henriksen, A. and Seip, H.M. 1980. Strong and weak acids in surface waters of southern Scotland.Wat. Res.,14, 809–813.Google Scholar
  63. Henriksen, A., Skogheim, O.K. and Rosseland, B.O. 1984. Episodic changes in pH and aluminum-speciation kill fish in a Norwegian salmon river.Vatten,40, 255–260.Google Scholar
  64. Hodges, S.C. 1987. Aluminum speciation: a comparison of five methods.J. Soil Sci. Soc. Am.,51, 57–64.Google Scholar
  65. Hohl, H. and Stumm, W. 1976. Interactions of Pb with hydrous-Al203.J. Coll. Interface Sci.,53, 178–186.Google Scholar
  66. Huang, C.P. 1975. Adsorption of phosphate on the hydrous-Al203 electrolyte interface.J. Coll. Interface Sci.,53, 178.Google Scholar
  67. Hutchinson, G.E. 1945. Aluminum in soils, plants and animals.Soil Sci.,60, 29–40.Google Scholar
  68. James, R.B., Clark, C.J. and Riha, S.J. 1983. An 8-hydroxyquinoline method for labile and total aluminum in soil extracts.J. Soil Sci. Soc. Am.,47, 893–897.Google Scholar
  69. Johannessen, M. 1980. Aluminum, a buffer in acidic waters. In: D. Drablos and A. Tollan (eds.),Ecological Impact of Acid Precipitation, pp.222–223. SNSF, Oslo.Google Scholar
  70. Johnson, A.H. and Siccama, T.G. 1979. Effect of vegetation on morphology of Windsor soils, Litchfield, Connecticut.J. Soil Sci. Am.,43, 1199–1200.Google Scholar
  71. Johnson, N.M. 1984. Acid rain neutralization by geologic materials. In: O.P. Bricker (ed.),Geological Aspects of Acidic Deposition, pp. 37–53. Butterworth, Boston.Google Scholar
  72. Johnson, N.M., Driscoll, C.T., Eaton, J.S., Likens, G.E. and McDowell, W.H. 1981. Acid rain, dissolved aluminum and chemical weathering at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire.Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta,45, 1421–1437.Google Scholar
  73. Karsch, H.H., Appell, A., Riede, J. and Muller, G. 1987. Functional trimethylphosphine derivatives. 24 (phosphinomethyl) aluminum compounds: bis and tris (dimethylphosphino) methyl ligands in tetrahedral and actahedral aluminum phosphine complexes and x-ray structure of Al [(PMe2)2C(SiMe3)] 3.Organometallics,6, 316–323.Google Scholar
  74. Kennedy, V.C., Zellweger, G.W. and Jones, B.F. 1974. Filter pore-size effects on the analysis of Al, Fe, Mn and Ti in water.Wat. Resour. Res.,10, 785–790.Google Scholar
  75. Kramer, J.R. 1981. Aluminum: Chemistry, Analysis and Biology, Environmental Geochemistry Report 1981/82, Department of Geology, McMaster University.Google Scholar
  76. Lakatos, B.J., Meisel, J. and Mady, J. 1977. Biopolymer-metal complex systems: L experiments for the preparation of high purity peat humic substances and their metal complexes.Acta Agron. Academ. Sci. Hung.,26, 259–271.Google Scholar
  77. Lawrence, G.B., Fuller, R.D. and Driscoll, C.T. 1986. Spatial relationships of aluminum chemistry in streams of the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire.Biogeochemistry,2, 115–135.Google Scholar
  78. LaZerte, B.D. 1984. Forms of aqueous aluminum in acidified catchments of Central Ontario: a methodological analysis.Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.,41, 766–776.Google Scholar
  79. Lee, Y.H. 1985. Aluminum speciation in different water types.In: F. Andersson and B. Olsson (eds.),Lake Gardsjon: An Acid Forest Lake and its Catchment, pp.109–119. Ecological Bulletins, Stockholm.Google Scholar
  80. Likens, G.E., Bormann, F.H., Pierce, R.S., Eaton, J.S. and Johnson, N.M. 1977.Biogeochemistry of a Forested Ecosystem. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  81. Lind, C.J. and Hem, J.D. 1975.Effect of Organic Solutes on Chemical Reactions of Aluminum. U.S. Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 1827-G., Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  82. Linthurst, R.A., Landers, D.H. and Eilers, J.M., Brakke, D.F., Overton, W.S., Meier, E.P. and Crowe, R.E. 1986. Population descriptions and physico-chemical relationships.Characteristics of Lakes in the Eastern United States, Vol.1. EPA/600/4-86/007a. U.S. EPA, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  83. Luciak, G.M. and Huang, P.M. 1974. Effect of monosilicic acid on hydrolytic reactions of aluminum.Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. Am.,38, 235–244.Google Scholar
  84. Malley, D.F., Findlay, D.L. and Chang, P.S.S. 1982. Ecological effects of acid precipitation on Zooplankton. In: F.N. D'Itri (ed.),Acid Precipitation: Effects on Ecological Systems, pp.291–327. Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  85. Martin, R.B. 1986. Citrate binding of Al3+ and Fe3+.J. Inorg. Biochem.,28, 181–187.Google Scholar
  86. May, H.M., Helmke, P.A. and Jackson, M.L. 1979. Gibbsite solubility and thermodynamic properties of hydroxyaluminum ions in aqueous solutions at 25 °C.Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta,43, 861–868.Google Scholar
  87. McBride, M.B. and Bloom, P.R. 1977. Adsorption of aluminum by a smectite. II. an Al3+ — Ca2+ exchange model.J. Soil Sci. Soc. Am.,41, 1073–1077.Google Scholar
  88. McKeague, J.A., Brydon, J.E. and Miles, N.M. 1971. Differentiation of forms of extractable iron and aluminum in soils.Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. Am.,35, 33–38.Google Scholar
  89. Meiwes, K.J., Khanna, P.K. and Ulrich, B. 1984. Retention of sulfate by an acid brown earth and its relationship with atmospheric input of sulfur to forest vegetation.Z. Pflanzenernaehr. Bodenk.,143, 402–411.Google Scholar
  90. Messenger, A.S. 1975. Climate, time and organisms in relation to podzol development in Michigan sands II. relationships between chemical element concentrations in mature tree foliage and upper soil horizons.J. Soil Sci. Soc. Am.,39, 698–702.Google Scholar
  91. Messenger, A.S., Kline, J.R. and Wildrotter, D. 1978. Aluminum biocycling as a factor in soil change.Plant Soil,49, 703–709.Google Scholar
  92. Muniz, I.P. and Leivestad, H. 1980. Toxic effects of aluminum on the brown troutSalmo trutta L. In: D. Drablos and A. Tollan (eds.),Ecological Impact of Acid Precipitation, pp.268–269. SNSF Project, Oslo.Google Scholar
  93. Nilsson, S.I. and Bergkvist, B. 1983. Aluminum chemistry and acidification processes in a shallow podzol on the Swedish west coast.Wat., Air Soil Pollut.,20, 311–329.Google Scholar
  94. Norton, S.A. 1976. Changes in chemical processes in soils caused by acid precipitation. In: L.S. Dochinger and T.A. Seliga (eds.), pp.711–724.Proc. First International Symposium on Acid Precipitation, USDA Forest Service General Technical Report NE-2.Google Scholar
  95. Norton, S.A., Davis, R.B. and Brakke, D.F. 1981. Responses of Northern New England Lakes to Atmospheric Inputs of Acid and Heavy Metals. Completion Report Project A-048-ME, Land and Water Resources Center. University of Maine, Orono, ME.Google Scholar
  96. Norton, S.A. and Henriksen, A. 1983. The importance of CO2 in evaluation of effects of acidic deposition.Vatten,4, 346–354.Google Scholar
  97. Parker, D.R., Zelazny, L.W. and Kinraide, T.B. 1987. Chemical speciation and plant toxicity to aqueous aluminum.Proc. Am. Chem. Soc., Div. Environ. Chem.,27, 369–372.Google Scholar
  98. Pavan, M.A., Bingham, F.T. and Pratt, P.F. 1982. Toxicity of aluminum to coffee in Utisols and Oxisols amended with CaCO3, MgCO3 and CaSO4.H2O.J. Soil Sci. Soc. Am.,46, 1201–1207.Google Scholar
  99. Reuss, J.O. and Johnson, D.W. 1985. Effect of soil processes on the acidification of water by acid deposition.J. Environ. Qual.,14, 26–31.Google Scholar
  100. Reuss, J.O. and Johnson, D.W. 1986.Acid Deposition and the Acidification of Soils and Water. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  101. Ritchie, G.S.P. and Posner, A.M. 1982. The effect of pH and metal binding on the transport properties of humic acids.J. Soil Sci.,33, 233–247.Google Scholar
  102. Roberson, C.E. and Hem, J.D. 1967.Solubility of Aluminum in the Presence of Hydroxide, Fluoride and Sulfate, U.S. Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 1827-C. Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  103. Rosen, K. 1982. Loss and Distribution of Nutrients in Three Coniferous Forest Watersheds in Central Sweden, Reports in Forest Ecology and Forest Soils 41, Department of Forest Soils, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.Google Scholar
  104. Schecher, W.D. 1988. Chemical Equilibrium Calculations and Uncertainty within Drainage Water Acidification Models, Ph.D. Dissertation. Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY.Google Scholar
  105. Schecher, W.D. and Driscoll, C.T. 1987. An evaluation of uncertainty associated with aluminum equilibrium calculations.Wat. Resour. Res.,23, 525–534.Google Scholar
  106. Schecher, W.D. and Driscoll, C.T. 1988a. Principles and applications of surface water acidification models. In J. Saxena (ed.),Hazard Assessment of Chemicals — Current Developments, pp. 187–224. Hemisphere Publishing, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  107. Schecher, W.D. and Driscoll, C.T. 1988b. An evaluation of equilibrium calculations within acidification models: the effect of uncertainty in measured chemical components.Wat. Resour. Res.,24, 533–540.Google Scholar
  108. Scheider, W.A., Adamski, J. and Paylor, M. 1975.Reclamation of Acidified Lakes near Sudbury Ontario by Neutralization and Fertilization. Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Rexdale, Ontario.Google Scholar
  109. Schnitzer, M. and Skinner, S.I.M. 1963a. Organic-metallic interactions in soils: 2. reactions between forms of iron and aluminum and organic matter of a podzol Bh horizon.Soil Sci.,96, 181–186.Google Scholar
  110. Schnitzer, M. and Skinner, S.I.M. 1963b. Organic-metallic interactions in soils: 1. reactions between a number of metal ions and organic matter of a podzol Bh horizon.Soil Sci.,96, 86–93.Google Scholar
  111. Schoen, R. 1986. Water acidification in the Federal Republic of Germany proved by simple chemical models.Wat. Air Soil Pollut.,31, 187–195.Google Scholar
  112. Schofield, C.L. and Torjnar, J.R. 1980. Aluminum toxicity to fish in acidified waters. In: T.Y. Toribara, M.W. Miller and P.E. Morrow (eds.),Polluted Rain, pp.347–366. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  113. Sipos, S., Sipos, E., Dekany, I., Deer, A., Meisel, J. and Lakatos, B. 1978. Biopolymer-metal complex systems. II. physical properties of humic substances and their metal complexes.Acta Agron. Academ. Sci. Hung.,27, 31–42.Google Scholar
  114. Slanina, P., Falkeborn, Y., Frech, W. and Cedergren, A. 1984. Aluminum concentrations in the brain and bone of rats fed with citric acid, aluminum citrate or aluminum hydroxide.Food Chem. Toxicol.,22, 391–397.Google Scholar
  115. Slanina, P., Frech, W., Bernhardson, A. and Cedergren, A. 1985. Influence of dietary factors on aluminum absorption and retention in the brain and bone of rats.Acta Pharmacol. Toxicol.,56, 331–336.Google Scholar
  116. Slanina, P., Frech, W., Ekstron, L.G., Loof, L., Slorach, S. and Cedergren, A. 1986. Dietary citric acid enhances absorption of aluminum in antacids.Clinical Chem.,32, 539–541.Google Scholar
  117. Smith, R.M. and Martell, A.E. 1974.Critical Stability Constants. Vol.4. Other Inorganic Complexes. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  118. Smith, R.W. and Hem, J.D. 1972.Effect of Aging on Aluminum Hydroxide Complexes in Dilute Aqueous Solutions, U.S. Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 1827-D. Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  119. Stumm, W. and Morgan, J.J. 1970.Aquatic Chemistry. Wiley-Interscience, New York.Google Scholar
  120. Turner, R.C. 1969. Three forms of aluminum in aqueous systems determined by 8-hydroxyquinoline extraction methods.Can. J. Chem.,47, 2521–2527.Google Scholar
  121. Turner, R.C. 1971. Kinetics of reaction of 8-quinolinol and acetate with hydroxyaluminum species in aqueous methods.Can. J. Chem.,49, 1688–1690.Google Scholar
  122. Ugolini, F.C., Minden, R., Dawson, H. and Zachara, J. 1977. An example of soil processes in theAbies amabilis zone of the Central Cascades, Washington.Soil Sci.,124, 291–302.Google Scholar
  123. van Breemen, N., Burrough, P.A., Velthorst, E.J., van Dobben, H.F., de Wit, T. and Ridder, T.B. 1982. Soil acidification from atmospheric ammonium sulfate in forest canopy throughfall.Nature,299, 548–550.Google Scholar
  124. Vangenechechten, J.H.D. and Vanderborght, O.L.J. 1980. Acidification of Belgian moorland pools by acid sulphur-rich rainwater. In: D. Drablos and A. Tollan (eds.),Ecological Impact of Acid Precipitation, pp.246–247. SNSF Project, Oslo.Google Scholar
  125. White, J.R, and Driscoll, C.T. 1985. Lead cycling in an acidic Adirondack lake.Environ. Sci. Technol.,19, 1182–1187.Google Scholar
  126. Wood, J.M. 1985. Effects of acidification on the mobility of metals and metalloids: an overview.Environ. Health Perspect.,63, 115–119.Google Scholar
  127. Wright, R.F., Dale, T., Henriksen, A., Hendrey, G.R., Gjessing, E.T., Johannessen, M., Lysholm, C. and Storen, E. 1977. Regional Surveys of Small Norwegian Lakes, IR33/77. SNSF Project, Oslo.Google Scholar
  128. Yan, N.D. 1983. Effects of changes in pH on transparency and thermal regimes of Lohi Lake, near Sudbury, Ontario.Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.,40, 621–626.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Sciences and Technology Letters 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles T. Driscoll
    • 1
  • William D. Schecher
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringSyracuse UniversitySyracuseUSA

Personalised recommendations