, Volume 14, Issue 2–3, pp 201–213 | Cite as

Reproductive parameters of the Taiwan monkey (Macaca cyclopis)

  • Ming-Tsung Peng
  • Yih-Loong Lai
  • Czau-Siung Yang
  • Her-Shyang Chiang
  • Albert E. New
  • Chieh-Pao Chang


The following parameters of the Taiwan monkey,Macaca cyclopis, are presented and compared with other species ofMacaca: the menstrual cycle, sexual skin and vaginal desquamation changes during the menstrual cycle, time of ovulation, gestation period, breeding season, body weight of the newborn, age and body weight at menarche, body weight at first conception, spermatozoa count in the ejaculate, and the body weight at sexual maturity of the male.

The many similarities in reproductive biology ofMacaca cyclopis, the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), and the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca irus) include sexual skin and vaginal desquamation changes during the menstrual cycle, time of ovulation, gestation period, and placental sign. Body weight ofM. cyclopis is lower thanM. mulatta at birth, at menarche and at the first conception in females and at sexual maturation in males, is heavier thanM. irus at birth and is not different fromM. radiata at birth. No difference in menstrual cycle ofM. cyclopis was observed in animals housed in air-conditioned rooms compared to those housed in nonair-conditioned rooms. Summer amenorrhea was not observed inM. cyclopis but a high incidence of low vaginal desquamation was noted to occur in summer months. The mode of length of the menstrual cycle ofM. cyclopis is shorter thanM. mulatta and other species ofMacaca. The breeding season ofM. cyclopis in the wild extends from the end of September to January. In laboratory conditions their fertile period extends throughout the year.


Body Weight Laboratory Condition Menstrual Cycle Breeding Season Rhesus Monkey 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ch'en Mai, M. Y. &H. B. van Dyke, 1934. Hydrogen-ion concentration of vaginal fluid during menstrual cycle of macaque.J. Chinese Physiol. 8: 203–207.Google Scholar
  2. Clark, K. A. & A. E. New, 1969. Anthropometric determinations of American bornMacaca mulatta. Naval Aerospace Medical Institute, Naval Aerospace Medical Center NAMI-1078, Pensacola, Florida. pp. 1–12.Google Scholar
  3. Corner, G. W., 1932. The menstrual cycle of the Malayan monkey,Macaca irus.Anat. Rec. 52: 401–410.Google Scholar
  4. Eckstein, P. &S. Zuckerman, 1956. The oestrous cycle in the mammalia. In:Marshall's Physiology of Reproduction Ed. 3, Vol. 1, Part 1, Longmans, London, pp. 226–396.Google Scholar
  5. Erickson, L. B., 1961. The effect of altered light-dark rhythm on the length of menstrual cycle of rhesus monkey.Anat. Rec. 139: 226.Google Scholar
  6. ——, 1960. Menstrual irregularities in rhesus monkeys elicited by reserpine administered on selected days of the cycle.Endocrinology 66: 824–831.Google Scholar
  7. Fleischman, R. W., 1964. The care of infant rhesus monkey.Lab. Animal Care, 13: 793–710.Google Scholar
  8. Fujiwara, T., S. Honjo, T. Uchiya, K. Imaizumi, T. Imamichi, &T. Miura, 1966. Studies on the reproduction of cynomolgus monkey (Macaca irus). I. On the result of experimental breeding done in the past three years.Jap. J. Vet. Sci. 28: 421. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  9. ——, 1967. Normal range of the menstrual cycle of cynomolgus monkeys under laboratory conditions.Jap. J. Med. Sci. Biol. 20: 505–507.Google Scholar
  10. ——, 1969. Practice of the breeding of cynomolgus monkey (Macaca irus) under laboratory conditions.Exp. Animals 18: 29–40. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  11. ——, 1967. Birth weight, gestation age and type of delivery in rhesus monkey.Amer. J. Obstet. Gyne. 97: 76–80.Google Scholar
  12. Garten, S., 1906. Über die Veränderungen des Sehpurpurs durch Licht.Graefes Archiv. Ophthalmologie 63: 112–187.Google Scholar
  13. Gupta, S. R. &B. K. Anand, 1971. Effect of protein deficiency on plasma progesterone levels during the menstrual cycle of adult rhesus monkey.Endocrinology 89: 652–658.Google Scholar
  14. Hartman, C. G., 1932. Studies in the reproduction of monkeyMacacus (Pithecus) rhesus, with special reference to menstruation and pregnancy.Contr. Embryol. Carneg. Instn. 23: 1–161.Google Scholar
  15. ——, 1938. Some observations on the bonnet macaque.J. Mammal. 19: 468. cit. fromMarshall's Physiol. Reproduction Ed. 3, Vol. 1, Part 1. Longmans, London. pp. 341–342.Google Scholar
  16. Hertig, A. T., N. W. King, &J. McKay, 1971. Spontaneous abortion in wild-caught rhesus monkey.Lab. Animal Sci. 21: 510–519.Google Scholar
  17. Hill, W. C. O., 1939. Menstrual cycle of toque macaque (Macaca sinica linn), with observations on its uterine structure, compared with that of other macaques.Ceylon J. Sci. D. 5: 21–36. cit. fromMarshall's Physiol. Reproduction Ed. 3, Vol. 1, Part 1, Longmans, London, pp. 341–342.Google Scholar
  18. Kaye, H., M. L. Povar, &A. M. Schrier, 1966. Rearing ofMacaca mulatta from birth.Lab. Anim. Care. 16: 476–486.Google Scholar
  19. Keverne, E. B. &R. P. Michael, 1970. Annual changes in the menstruation of rhesus monkey.J. Endocr. 48: 669–670.Google Scholar
  20. Krohn, P. L. &S. Zuckerman, 1937. Water metabolism in relation to the menstrual cycle.J. Physiol. 88: 369–387.Google Scholar
  21. Mastroianni, L. &W. A. Manson, 1965. Collection of monkey semen by electro-ejaculation.Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 112: 1025–1027.Google Scholar
  22. Murie, J., 1872. Observations on the Macaques. III. The Formosan or round-faced monkey.Proc. zool. Soc. London, pp. 771–774.Google Scholar
  23. Ong, P. Y., 1964. Some observations on the sexual cycle of theMacaca irus. Peking Symposium, Med. Sci., pp. 233–242.Google Scholar
  24. Pickering, D. E. &N. E. Kontaxis, 1961. Thyroid function in the foetus of the macaque monkey (Macaca mulatta). II. Chemical and morphological characteristics of the foetal thyroid gland.J. Endocr. 23: 267–275.Google Scholar
  25. Schultz, H., 1961. Growth and development. In:Anatomy of the Rhesus Monkey. Chapter II Hartman, C. G. &W. L. Straus, Jr. (eds.), Hafner Pub. Co., New York, pp. 10–27.Google Scholar
  26. Smith, R. M. &B. B. Rubenstein, 1940. Adolescence of macaques.Endocrinology 26: 667–679.Google Scholar
  27. Spiegel, A., 1950. Weitere Beobachtungen und Untersuchungen über die Fortpflanzung bei Javamakaken (Macaca irus mordax) Th. und Wr. (cynomolgus L.).Arch. Gynaek. 177: 590. cit. fromMarshall's Physiol. Reproduction Ed. 2, Vol. 1, Part 1, Longmans, London, pp. 340–341.Google Scholar
  28. Valerio, D. A., R. L. Miller, J. R. M. Innes, K. D. Coutney, A. J. Pallotta, &R. M. Guttmacher, 1969a.Macaca mulatta, Management of a Laboratory Breeding Colony. Academic Press, New York & London, pp. 59–78.Google Scholar
  29. ——, 1969b. Experiences in large-scale breeding of simians for medical experimentation.Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 162: 282–296.Google Scholar
  30. ——, 1971. Theanalysis of male fertility, artificial insemination and natural matings in the laboratory breeding of macaques.Medical Primatology 1970. Proc. 2nd Conf. exp. Med. Surg. Primates, New York 1969, Karger, Basel 1971, pp. 515–525.Google Scholar
  31. van Wagenen, 1945. Optimal mating time for pregnancy in the monkey (rhesus).Endocrinology 37: 307–312.Google Scholar
  32. ——, 1965. Growth of the foetus and placenta of the monkey (Macaca mulatta).Amer. J. Phys. Anthrop. 23: 23–34.Google Scholar
  33. Zuckerman, S., 1937. The duration and phases of the menstrual cycle in primates.Proc. zool. Soc. London 107: 315–329.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ming-Tsung Peng
    • 1
  • Yih-Loong Lai
    • 1
  • Czau-Siung Yang
    • 2
  • Her-Shyang Chiang
    • 3
  • Albert E. New
    • 3
  • Chieh-Pao Chang
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Physiology, College of MedicineNational Taiwan UniversityRepublic of China
  2. 2.Department of Bacteriology, College of MedicineNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiRepublic of China
  3. 3.Veterinary Medicine DepartmentU.S. Naval Medical Research Unit NO. 2TaipeiRepublic of China

Personalised recommendations