, Volume 12, Issue 2, pp 125–150 | Cite as

Five natural troops of Japanese monkeys on Shodoshima Island: II. A comparison of social structure

  • Munemi Yamada


The results of a comparative study of five natural troops of Japanese monkeys living on Shodoshima Island are as follows. (1) When troops were feeding at the feeding places, various cases, such as individuals spaced out dispersively or close by in a gregarious state, were observed. (2) Differences were also observed among the troops at the feeding place; some troops always fed in a dispersive state, on the whole, while others fed in a gregarious state with small distances between individuals. (3) Differences of social structure were observed among the five troops: differences of the number of classes and sub-classes in males and females, of the relation between classes and their age distribution in males, of the proportion of individuals who intruded into the central part of the troop or who made it their core area of activity to the total male population, etc., and it was also assumed that some troops were integrated more strictly, while others were integrated loosely. (4) These differences of social structure among the troops were assumed to be closely related to the gregariousness or dispersiveness of the each troop at feeding time. From these facts several decisive factors of social structure were considered.


Social Structure Small Distance Animal Ecology Core Area Decisive Factor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Carpenter, C. R., 1942. Sexual behaviour of free ranging rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).Jour. Comparat. Psychol. 33: 113–142.Google Scholar
  2. Furuya, Y., 1960. An example of fission of a natural troop of Japanese monkeys at Gagyusan.Primates 2: 149–179.Google Scholar
  3. Imanishi, K., 1957. Identification: A process of enculturation in the subhuman society ofMacaca fuscata.Primates 1: 1–29. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  4. Itani, J., 1954. Takasakiyama no saru (Japanese monkeys in Takasakiyama). In:Nihon Dobutsuki II K. Imanishi (ed.), Kobun-sha, Tokyo. 284 pp. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  5. ——, 1957. Personality of Japanese monkeys.Iden. 11(1): 23–29. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  6. ——, 1958. On the acquisition and propagation of a new habit in the troop of Japanese monkeys at Takasakiyama.Primates 1: 84–98. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  7. Kawai, M., 1958. On the rank system in a natural group of Japanese monkeys, I & II.Primates 1: 111–148. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  8. ——, 1964.Nihonzaru no Seitai (Ecology of Japanese monkeys). Kawade-shobo, Tokyo. 274 pp. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  9. Kawamura, S., 1956a. The spatial distribution test of individuals of a natural group of the Japanese macaque.Ann. Anim. Psychol., 6(2). (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  10. --, 1956b. Prehuman culture.Shizen, 11(11). (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  11. ——, 1958. The matriarchal social order in the Minoo-B troop: a study on the rank system of Japanese macaques.Primates 1: 149–156. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  12. ——, 1959a. Individuality in the social behavior of mammals. In:Societies and Individuals in Animals K. Imanishi (ed.), Iwanami-shoten, Tokyo. pp. 16–30. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  13. ——, 1959b. The process of sub-culture propagation among Japanese macaques.Primates 2: 43–60.Google Scholar
  14. -- &M. Kawai, 1956. Social organization of the natural group of Japanese macaques: the case of the Minoo-B group.Jap. Jour. Ecol., 6(2). (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  15. Koyama, N., 1970. Changes in dominance rank and division of a wild Japanese monkey troop in Arashiyama.Primates 11: 335–390.Google Scholar
  16. Mizuhara, H., 1957.Nihonzaru (Japanese monkeys). Sanichi-shobo, Kyoto. 220 pp. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  17. ——, 1964. Social changes of Japanese monkeys in the Takasakiyama troop.Primates 5: 27–52.Google Scholar
  18. ——, 1965. Status organization of wild Japanese monkeys at Takasakiyama. In:Saru (Monkeys and Apes),S. Kawamura &J. Itani (eds.), Chuokoron-sha, Tokyo, pp. 195–213. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  19. Sugiyama, Y., 1960. On the division of a natural troop of Japanese monkeys at Takasakiyama.Primates 2: 109–148.Google Scholar
  20. Tokuda, K., 1955. Dominance-subordination relationships in a society of the wild Japanese monkeys. In:Seibutsu-Kagaku Iwanami-shoten, Tokyo. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  21. ——, 1958. Koshima no saru (The Japanese monkeys in Koshima). In:Nihon Dobutsuki III K. Imanishi (ed.), Kobun-sha, Tokyo. pp. 70–242. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  22. Yamada, M., 1957. A case of acculturation in the sub-human society of Japanese monkeys.Primates 1: 30–46. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  23. ——, 1963. A study of blood-relationship in the natural society of the Japanese macaque.Primates 4: 43–65.Google Scholar
  24. ——, 1966. Five natural troops of Japanese monkeys in Shodoshima Island (1): distribution and social organization.Primates 7: 315–362.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre 1971

Authors and Affiliations

  • Munemi Yamada
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biology, Faculty of ScienceOsaka City UniversityOsakaJapan

Personalised recommendations