Severe hemolysis caused by antibodies against the mushroomPaxillus involutus and its therapy by plasma exchange
It has been shown that fatal “poisoning” with the mushroom speciesPaxillus involutus is caused by antibodies against the fungus in sensitized patients. Because circulating immune complexes play an important role, therapeutic procedures which can eliminate those complexes could stop immune hemolysis. A 37-year-old patient became severely ill after repeated ingestion of sufficiently cookedPaxillus involutus. As a result of hemolysis with reversible shock symptoms, acute renal failure developed. Plasma exchange with 3,000 ml albumin 5% was carried out daily during the first 3 days after admission. Each plasma exchange lowered free hemoglobin and immune complex levels by 60%–75%. Acute renal failure was successfully treated with hemodialysis.
Specific IgG-antibodies against membrane particles ofPaxillus involutus were detected by hemagglutination tests in the serum of the patient. The sequence of reactions resulting from the testing procedures strongly suggests the formation of immune complexes. These complexes are likely to bind to erythrocytes acting as innocent bystanders. Activation of the complement system finally results in hemolysis and shock. In addition to adequate shock treatment elimination of these immune complexes by plasma separation seems to be the therapy of choice.
Key wordsPaxillus involutus Immune hemolysis Plasma exchange
Blood urea nitrogen
- HGG eq
Human γ-globulin equivalent
Serum glutamate oxaloacetic transaminase
Serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase
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