Archives of Virology

, Volume 141, Issue 3–4, pp 715–726 | Cite as

Epidemiology of symptomatic human rotaviruses in Bangalore and Mysore, India, from 1988 to 1994 as determined by electropherotype, subgroup and serotype analysis

  • S. Aijaz
  • K. Gowda
  • H. V. Jagannath
  • R. R. Reddy
  • P. P. Maiya
  • R. L. Ward
  • H. B. Greenberg
  • M. Raju
  • A. Babu
  • C. Durga Rao
Brief Report


Epidemiology of symptomatic rotaviruses from Bangalore and Mysore in Southern India was investigated. While serotype G3 predominated throughout the 7-year study period from 1988 to 1994 in Bangalore, serotype G1 was more predominant than serotype G3 in Mysore during 1993 and 1994. Serotype G2 strains were either not detected or infrequently observed in both the cities. However, several strains with subgroup I and ‘short’ RNA pattern that exhibited high reactivity with typing MAbs specific for serotype 2 as well as other serotypes were detected throughout the period. Among the nonserotypeable strains from both cities, several exhibited dual subgroup (SGI+II) or subgroup I specificity and ‘long’ RNA pattern indicating their probable animal origin. Notably, a gradual, yet highly significant reduction in rotavirus gastroenteritis, from 45.3% in 1988 to 1.8% during 1994, was observed in Bangalore in stark contrast to the consistently high (about 34%) incidence of asymptomatic infections among neonates by I321-like G10P11 type strains during the same period. Moreover, I321-like asymptomatic strains were not detected in children with diarrhea.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Beards GM, Desselberger U, Flewett TH (1989) Temporal and geographical distributions of human rotavirus serotypes, 1983 to 1988. J Clin Microbiol 27: 2827–2833PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bhan MK, Lew JF, Sazawal S, Das BK, Gentsch JR, Glass RI (1993) Protection conferred by neonatal rotavirus infection against subsequent rotavirus diarrhoea. J Infect Dis 168: 282–287PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bingnan F, Unicomb L, Rahim Z, Banu NN, Podder G, Clemens J, van Loon FPL, Rao MR, Malek A, Tzipori S (1991) Rotavirus-associated diarrhea in rural Bangladesh: two year study of incidence and serotype distribution. J Clin Microbiol 29: 1359–1363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bishop RF, Barnes GL, Cipriani E, Lund JS (1983) Clinical immunity after neonatal rotavirus infection: a prospective longitudinal study in young children. N Engl J Med 309: 72–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bishop RF, Unicomb LE, Soenarto Y, Suwardji H, Ristanto, Barnes GL (1989) Rotavirus serotypes causing acute diarrhoea in hospitalized children in Yogyakarta, Indonesia during 1978–1979. Arch Virol 107: 207–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chen D, Burns JW, Estes MK, Ramig RF (1989) Phenotypes of rotavirus reassortants depend upon the recipient genetic background. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86: 3743–3747PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chen D, Estes MK, Ramig RF (1992) Specific interactions between rotavirus outer capsid proteins VP4 and VP7 determine expression of a cross-reactive, neutralizing VP4-specific epitope. J Virol 66: 432–439PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Coulson BS (1987) Variation in neutralization epitopes of human rotavirus in relation to genomic RNA polymorphism. Virology 159: 209–216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Coulson BS, Kirkwood C (1991) Relation of VP7 amino acid sequence to monoclonal antibody neutralization of rotavirus and rotavirus monotype. J Virol 65: 5968–5974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Coulson BS, Tursi JM, McAdam WJ, Bishop RF (1986) Derivation of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to human rotaviruses and evidence that an immunodominant neutralization site is shared between serotypes 1 and 3. Virology 154: 302–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Das M, Dunn SJ, Woode GN, Greenberg HB, Rao CD (1993) Both surface proteins (VP4 and VP7) of an asymptomatic neonatal rotavirus strain (I321) have high levels of sequence identity with the homologous proteins of a serotype 10 bovine rotavirus. Virology 194: 374–379PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Das BK, Gentsch JR, Cicirello HG, Woods PA, Gupta A, Ramachandran M, Kumar R, Bhan MK, Glass RI (1994) Characterization of rotavirus strains from new-borns in New Delhi, India. J Clin Microbiol 32: 1820–1822PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dormitzer PR, Ho DY, Mackow ER, Mocarski ES, Greenberg HB (1992) Neutralizing epitopes on Herpes simplex virus-1-expressed rotavirus VP7 are dependent on coexpression of other rotavirus proteins. Virology 187: 18–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dunn SJ, Burns JW, Cross TL, Vo PT, Ward RL, Bremont M, Greenberg HB (1994) Comparison of VP4 and VP7 of five murine rotavirus strains. Virology 203: 250–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Estes MK, Cohen J (1989) Rotavirus gene structure and function. Microbiol Rev 53: 410–449PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gerna G, Sarasini A, Coulson BS, Parea M, Torsellini M, Arbustini E, Battaglia M (1988) Comparative sensitivities of solid-phase immune electron microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay for serotyping of human rotavirus strains with neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. J Clin Microbiol 26: 1383–1387PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ghosh SK, Naik TN (1989) Detection of a large number of subgroup I human rotaviruses with a ‘long’ RNA electropherotype. Arch Virol 105: 119–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ginevskaya VA, Amitina NN, Eremeeva TP, Shirman GA, Priimagi LS, Drozdov SG (1994) Electropherotypes and serotypes of human rotavirus in Estonia in 1989–1992. Arch Virol 137: 199–207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gomez J, Estes MK, Matson DO, Bellinzoni R, Alvarez A, Grinstein S (1990) Serotyping of human rotaviruses in Argentina by ELISA with monoclonal antibodies. Arch Virol 112: 249–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Green KY, Kapikian AZ (1992) Identification of VP7 epitopes associated with protection against human rotavirus illness or shedding in volunteers. J Virol 66: 548–553PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Green KY, Sarasini A, Qian Y, Gerna G (1992) Genetic variation in rotavirus serotype 4 subtypes. Virology 188: 362–368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Greenberg H, McAuliffe V, Valdesuso J, Wyatt R, Flores J, Kalica A, Hoshino Y, Singh N (1983) Serological analysis of the subgroup protein of rotavirus, using monoclonal antibodies. Infect Immun 39: 91–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Herring AJ, Inglis NF, Ojeh CK, Snodgrass DR, Menzies JD (1982) Rapid diagnosis of rotavirus infection by direct detection of viral nucleic acid in silver stained polyacrylamide gels. J Clin Microbiol 16: 473–477PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hoshino Y, Gorziglia M, Valdesuso J, Askaa J, Glass RI, Kapikian AZ (1987) An equine rotavirus (FI-14 strain) which bears both subgroup I and subgroup II specificities on its VP6. Virology 157: 488–496PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hoshino Y, Kapikian AZ (1994) Rotavirus antigens. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 185: 179–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Imagawa H, Tanaka T, Sekiguchi K, Fukunaga Y, Anzai T, Minamoto N, Kamada M (1993) Electropherotypes, serotypes and subgroups of equine rotaviruses isolated in Japan. Arch Virol 131: 169–176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kapikian AZ, Chanock RM (1990) Rotaviruses. In: Fields BN, Knipe DN, Melnick JL, Chanock RM, Roizman B, Shope RE (eds) Virology, vol 2. Raven Press, New York, pp 1353–1404Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kirkwood C, Masendycz PJ, Coulson BS (1993) Characteristics and location of cross-reactive and serotype-specific neutralization sites on VP7 of human G type 9 rotaviruses. Virology 196: 79–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Krishnan T, Burke B, Shen S, Naik TN, Desselberger U (1994) Molecular epidemiology of human rotaviruses in Manipur: genome analysis of rotaviruses of long electropherotype and subgroup I. Arch Virol 134: 279–292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Masendycz PJ, Unicomb LE, Kirkwood CD, Bishop RF (1994) Rotavirus serotypes causing severe acute diarrhea in young children in six Australian cities, 1989–1992. J Clin Microbiol 32: 2315–2317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Midthun K, Greenberg HB, Hoshino Y, Kapikian AZ, Wyatt RG, Chanock RM (1985) Reassortant rotaviruses as potential live rotavirus vaccine candidates. J Virol 53: 949–954PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Noel JS, Beards GM, Cubitt WD (1991) Epidemiological survey of human rotavirus serotypes and electropherotypes in young children admitted to two children's hospitals in Northeast London from 1984 to 1990. J Clin Microbiol 29: 2213–2219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Noriega LP, Arias CF, Lopez S, Puerto F, Snodgrass DR, Taniguchi K, Greenberg HB (1990) Diversity of rotavirus serotypes in Mexican infants with gastroenteritis. J Clin Microbiol 28: 1114–1119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Pipittajan P, Kasempimolporn S, Ikegami N, Akatani K, Wasi C, Sinarachatanant P (1991) Molecular epidemiology of rotaviruses associated with pediatric diarrhoea in Bangkok, Thailand. J Clin Microbiol 29: 617–624PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Pongsuwanne Y, Taniguchi K, Choonthanom M, Chiwakul M, Susansook T, Saguanwongse S, Jayavasu C, Urasawa S (1989) Subgroup and serotype distributions of human, bovine and porcine rotaviruses in Thailand. J Clin Microbiol 27: 1956–1960PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rasool NBG, Green KY, Kapikian AZ (1993) Serotype analysis of rotaviruses from different locations in Malaysia. J Clin Microbiol 31: 1815–1819PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rodger SM, Bishop RF, Birch C, McLean B, Holmes IH (1981) Molecular epidemiology of human rotaviruses in Melbourne, Australia from 1973 to 1979, as determined by electrophoresis of genome ribonucleic acid. J Clin Microbiol 13: 272–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Shaw AL, Rothnagel R, Chen D, Ramig RF, Chiu W, Prasad BVV (1993) Three-dimensional visualization of the rotavirus hemagglutinin structure. Cell 74: 693–701PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sukumaran M, Gowda K, Maiya PP, Srinivas TP, Kumar MS, Aijaz S, Reddy RR, Padilla L, Greenberg HB, Rao CD (1992) Exclusive asymptomatic neonatal infections by human rotavirus strains having subgroup I specificity and ‘long’ RNA electropherotype. Arch Virol 126: 239–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Svensson L, Grahnquist L, Pettersson C-A, Grandien M, Stintzing G, Greenberg HB (1988) Detection of human rotaviruses which do not react with subgroup I- and II-specific monoclonal antibodies. J Clin Microbiol 26: 1238–1240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Taniguchi K, Urasawa T, Urasawa S (1994) Species specificity and interspecies relatedness in VP4 genotypes demonstrated by VP4 sequence analysis of equine, feline and canine rotavirus strains. Virology 200: 390–400PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Thouless ME, Beards GM, Flewett TH (1982) Serotyping and subgrouping of rotavirus strains by the ELISA test. Arch Virol 73: 219–230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Timenetsky M DoCST, Santos N, Gouvea V (1994) Survey of rotavirus G and P types associated with human gastroenteritis in Sao Paulo, Brazil, from 1986 to 1992. J Clin Microbiol 32: 2622–2624PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Unicomb LE, Bishop RF (1989) Epidemiology of rotavirus strains infecting children throughout Australia during 1986–1987. A study of serotype and RNA electropherotype. Arch Virol 106: 23–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Urasawa T, Taniguchi K, Kobayashi N, Wakasugi F, Oishi I, Minekawa Y, Oseto M, Ahmed MU, Urasawa S (1990) Antigenic and genetic analyses of human rotavirus with dual subgroup specificity. J Clin Microbiol 28: 2837–2841PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ushijima H, Mukoyama A, Hasegawa A, Nishimura S, Konishi K, Bosu K (1994) Serotyping of human rotaviruses in the Tokyo area (1990–1993) by enzyme immunoassay with monoclonal antibodies and by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction amplification. J Med Virol 44: 162–165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ward RL, Clemens JD, Sack DA, Knowlton DR, McNeal MM, Huda N, Ahmed F, Rao M, Schiff GM (1991) Culture adaptation and characterization of group A rotaviruses causing diarrheal illnesses in Bangladesh from 1985 to 1986. J Clin Microbiol 29: 1915–1923PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Xin K-Q, Morikawa S, Fang Z-Y, Mukoyama A, Okuda K, Ushijima H (1993) Genetic variation in VP7 gene of human rotavirus serotype 1 (G1 type) isolated in Japan and China. Virology 197: 813–816PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Aijaz
    • 1
  • K. Gowda
    • 1
  • H. V. Jagannath
    • 1
  • R. R. Reddy
    • 1
  • P. P. Maiya
    • 2
  • R. L. Ward
    • 3
  • H. B. Greenberg
    • 4
  • M. Raju
    • 5
  • A. Babu
    • 5
  • C. Durga Rao
    • 1
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology and Cell BiologyIndian Institute of ScienceBangaloreIndia
  2. 2.M. S. Ramaiah HospitalBangaloreIndia
  3. 3.James N. Gamble Institute of Medical ResearchCincinnatiUSA
  4. 4.Department of Medicine, School of MedicineStanford University Stanfore and the Palo Alto VA Medical CenterPalo AltoUSA
  5. 5.Cheluvamba HospitalMysofeIndia
  6. 6.Centre for Genetic EngineeringIndian Institute of ScienceBangaloreIndia

Personalised recommendations