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Effects of lead nitrate ingestion on open-field behavior of mallard ducklings


Mallard ducklings were fed a control diet or a diet containing 5, 50, or 500 ppm lead as lead nitrate,ad libitum, and their open-field behavior was tested after either 3 or 8 days on treatments. Differences in open-field performances among treatments were not significant. Percentage weight gain differed significantly among treatment groups over an 8 day period, with the least growth occurring in the 5 ppm treatment group.

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Frederick, R.B. Effects of lead nitrate ingestion on open-field behavior of mallard ducklings. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 16, 739–742 (1976).

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  • Propylene Glycol
  • Lead Nitrate
  • Percentage Weight Gain
  • Mallard Duck
  • Develop Chick Embryo