Skip to main content

The acute toxicity of four herbicides to 0–4 hour nauplii ofCyclops Vernalis fisher (copepoda, cyclopoida)


  1. 1)

    When compared with published dataCyclops vernalis Fisher was found to be among the most sensitive crustaceans when exposed to amitrole-T and 2,4-D (free acid).

  2. 2)

    The toxiclty of amitrole toC. vernalis was somewhat less than published data forDaphnia magna. The 2,4-D (salt) was shown to be less toxic toC. vernalis than reported toxicity forLepomis macrochirus.

  3. 3)

    The toxicity of the commercial formulations was not dependent on the active ingredient content. Amitrole-T with 20 percent active ingredient proved to be more toxic than reagent grade amitrole. The alkanolamine salt of 2,4-D was less toxic than 2,4-D (free acid) to an extent much greater than could be expected from the examination of the acid equivalent of 2,4-D (salt).

  4. 4)

    Each of the herbicides examined apparently exhibited more than one mode of toxic action. This was demonstrated by the time-mortality data.

  5. 5)

    The method used here would be useful in the determination of effects other than mortality such as instar lengths, rates of molting and susceptability of different naupliar stages to stress factors.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Literature cited

  1. Baudouin, M.P. and P. Scoppa: Bull. Environ. Contam. Tox.12, (1974).

  2. Bunting, D.L.: J. Tenn. Acad. Sci.48, 138 (1973).

    Google Scholar 

  3. Coker, R.E.: J. Elisha Mitchell Soc.50, 143 (1934).

    Google Scholar 

  4. Findley, D.I.: Doctoral Dissertation, University of Tennessee, (1969).

  5. Konar, S. K.: J. Water Poll. Contr. Fed.42 R299, (1970).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Martin, D.M.: Contributions from the Department of Limnology. Number 3. Freshwater Bioassays — A Tool in Environmental Decisions. Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (1973).

  7. Naqvi, S.M. and D. E. Ferguson: J. Miss. Acad. Sci.14, 21 (1970).

    Google Scholar 

  8. Rio, D.F.: Dissert. Absts.32, 5541-B (1972).

    Google Scholar 

  9. Sanders, H.O.: J. Water Poll. Contr. Fed.42, 1544 (1970).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Sanders, H.O., F.L. Mayer, and D.C. Walsh: Environ. Res.6, 84 (1973).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Sprague, J.B.: Water Res.3, 793 (1969).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Additional information

This work support in part by OWRR Project A-028-Tenn.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Robertson, E.B., Bunting, D.L. The acute toxicity of four herbicides to 0–4 hour nauplii ofCyclops Vernalis fisher (copepoda, cyclopoida). Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 16, 682–688 (1976).

Download citation


  • Free Acid
  • Ammonium Thiocyanate
  • Amitrole
  • Naupliar Stage
  • Tennessee Valley Authority