Dimethyl ammonium alkyl hydroxamate (DMAH) was lethal to brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) at concentrations as low as 4.5 mg/l. Since DMAH consisted of a number of molecular species in equilibrium, experiments were conducted with several of them in an attempt to evaluate their contribution to its toxicity. Of the compounds tested dimethylamine proved to be non-toxic, hydroxylamine was as lethal as DMAH (on a molar basis) and NaC10 hydroxamate was 5–10 times more toxic than hydroxylamine or DMAH. These results suggested that although hydroxylamine may have played a small part in the toxicity of DMAH, the hydroxamate group appeared to be the major lethal component.
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Fletcher, G.L., Addison, R.F. Some aspects of the chemistry and acute toxicity of the iron ore flotation agent dimethyl ammonium alkyl hydroxamate and some related compounds to brook trout. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 7, 147–159 (1972). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01684806
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