Skip to main content

Kinetic studies of cobalt alginate gels


Sodium alginate sol can be converted into ionotropic gels by diffusion of di/or trivalent metal ions. The kinetics of this phase transition is studied by two different methods. It is found that the rate of gel membrane formation at the earlier stages is greater than that of the further gel growth. The kinetic studies of gel formation in the presence of a mixture of Cu2+ ions with either Co2+ or Ni2+ ions show that the exhaust of Co2+ and Ni2- ions is remarkable only at the first stage of gel formation. Meanwhile the Cu2+ ions continue exchanging all the time with Na2+ ions in the alginate sol. The activation energy of gel formation is found to range between 17–23 kJ mol, indicating the diffusion control of the process.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. 1)

    Fischer, G. F., H. Dorfel, Z. Physik Chem.301, 224 (1955), Z. Physik Chem.302, 186 (1955).

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2)

    Thiele, H., Z. Naturforschung36, 778 (1948).

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3)

    Thiele, H., Koll. Z.136, 80 (1954).

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4)

    Thiele, H., H. Micke, Koll. Z. III, 73 (1948).

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5)

    Thiele, H., L. Langmaack, Natur. Wissensch.43, 56 (1956); Z. Physik Chem.206, 394 (1956).

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6)

    Thiele, H., Kienast, Koll. Z.127, 134 (1952).

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    Thiele, H., K. Hallich, Koll. Z.36, 44 (1957).

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8)

    Awad, A., F. EI-Cheikh, R. Hassan, Revue Romaine De Chimie.24, 563 (1979).

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9)

    The First Chemical conference in Assiut university held in the memory of the lateProf. Dr. I. M. Issa (Assiut 1979).

  10. 10)

    Awad, A., Dissertation, Kiel, Christian-Albrecht Universität (1967)

  11. 11)

    Schwarzenbach, G., Komplexometrische Bestimmungsmethoden mit Titriplex, zweite Auflage, E. Merck A.G., Darmstadt (1900).

  12. 12)

    Brewer, I., E. Brackett, Chem. Rev.61, 425 (1961).

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13)

    Kettle, S. F. A., in: CO-ordination compounds, The English language book, Society Nelson, 48 (1975).

  14. 14)

    Gerosimov, Y. A., Physical Chemistry (Moscow 1974).

Download references

Author information



Additional information

With 6 figures and 3 tables

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Awad, A., El-Cheikh, F. & Shaker, A. Kinetic studies of cobalt alginate gels. Colloid & Polymer Sci 258, 1244–1249 (1980).

Download citation


  • Sodium
  • Polymer
  • Physical Chemistry
  • Phase Transition
  • Activation Energy