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Witterung und Ernährungssituation als entscheidende Faktoren des Bruterfolgs der Flußseeschwalbe (Sterna hirundo)

The influence of weather and food situation on the breeding success of Common Terns (Sterna hirundo)

Zusammenfassung

Während vier Brutzeiten wurden Faktoren untersucht, die den Bruterfolg zweier Flußseeschwalben-Kolonien einer Wattenmeerinsel bestimmten. Ausschlaggebend für die beträchtliche Variation des Bruterfolgs von Jahr zu Jahr (0,1–1,5 Küken pro Gelege) war die Witterung, insbesondere Niederschläge (Abb. 1). Sie beeinflußten die Kükenvitalität und verminderten offensichtlich auch den Erfolg des Nahrungserwerbs der Altvögel. Während einer Schlechtwetterperiode im Verlauf der ansonsten günstigen Brutperiode 1983 gab es Gewichtsabnahmen und Totfunde auch älterer Küken (Abb. 3, 4) sowie das Maximum der Kükenmortalität (Abb. 2). Im Gegensatz zu 1983, als die Mehrzahl der Brutpaare 2 oder sogar 3 Jungvögel aufziehen konnte (Tab. 1), gelang 1982 vielen Brutpaaren mit 2 älteren Jungen nicht die Aufzucht beider Küken (Tab. 2). Der Ausfliegeerfolg war weder in günstigen noch ungünstigen Brutperioden vom Zeitpunkt der Eiablage abhängig (Abb. 5).

Summary

During four breeding seasons factors were studied which determined the breeding success of two Common Tern colonies on the Wadden Sea—island Minsener Oldeoog, West Germany. The considerable annual differences in the breeding success stated (0,1–1,5 chicks/nest) were mainly caused by varying weather conditions, in particular varying amounts of precipitation (Fig. 1). They had negative effects on the vitality of the terns' chicks and apparently lowered the foraging success of the adults. In the course of the breeding period of 1983, which otherwise offered favourable conditions, weight reductions and increasing mortality of older chicks (Figs. 3, 4) as well as an overall maximum of dead chicks (Fig. 2) could be observed during a period of bad wheather. In 1983 the majority of breeding pairs were able to rear two or even three offspring (Table 1). In 1982, on the contrary, many breeding pairs with two older chicks did not succeed in rearing both to the age of fledging (Table 2). The fledging success was not dependent on the date of egg-laying, neither in favourable nor in unfavourable breeding periods (Fig. 5).

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Herrn Prof. Dr. Jürgen Nicolai zum 60. Geburtstag gewidmet

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Becker, P.H., Finck, P. Witterung und Ernährungssituation als entscheidende Faktoren des Bruterfolgs der Flußseeschwalbe (Sterna hirundo). J Ornithol 126, 393–404 (1985). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01643404

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