Skip to main content

Mate selection among second generation kibbutz adolescents and adults: Incest avoidance and negative imprinting

Abstract

Premarital sexual behavior and marriage patterns were investigated in Israeli kibbutzim. All adolescents and adults of the second generation (N =65)in one kibbutz were studied. There were no cases of heterosexual activity between any two native adolescents of the same peer group and no cases of marriage between any two members of the same peer group. The avoidance was completely voluntary. Among 2769 marriages contracted by second generation adults in all kibbutzim, there were no cases of intra—peer group marriage. These findings could represent a case of negative imprinting whereby collective peer group education which includes an incessant exposure to peers from the first days of life and an unimpeded tactile relationship among the peers between ages 0–6 results in sexual avoidance and exogamy.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Aberle, D. F., Bronfenbrenner, U., Hess, E. H., Miller, D. L., Schneider, D. M., Spuhler, J. N. (1963). The incest taboo and the mating pattern of animals.Amer. Anthropologist 65 253–266.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bell, N. W., and Vogel, E. F. (1960).A Modern Introduction to the Family, Free Press, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bettelheim, B. (1969).The Children of the Dream, Macmillan, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bowlby, J. (1958). The nature of the child's tie to his mother.Int. J. Psychoanal. 39 360–373.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cohen, Y. A. (1964).The Transition from Childhood to Adolescence, Aldine, Chicago.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fox, R. (1962). Sibling incest.Brit. J. Sociol. 13 128–150.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fox, R. (1967). In the beginning: Aspects of hominid behavioural evolution.Man 2 415–433.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fox, R. (1968). Incest, inhibition and hominid evolution. Paper presented to Wenner-Gren Symposium, Burg Wartenstein, August.

  • Frazer, J. (1910).Totemism and Exogamy, 4 vols., Macmillan, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Freud, S. (1940) (orig. 1913).Totem und Tabu, Gesammelte Werke IX, Imago, London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Freud, S. (1950).Totem and Taboo (James Strachey, trans.), Routledge & Kegan Paul, Ltd., London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Levy-Bruhl, L. (1931).Le surnaturel et la nature dans la mentalite primitive, Paris.

  • Livingstone, F. B. (1969). Genetics, ecology and the origins of incest and exogamy.Curr. Anthropol. 10 45–61.

    Google Scholar 

  • Malinowski, B. (1927).Sex and Repression in Savage Society, Routledge & Kegan Paul, Ltd., London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Money, J. (1960). Components of eroticism in man: Cognitional rehearsals.Rec. Advan. Biol. Psychiat. 2 210–225.

    Google Scholar 

  • Money, J. (1962). Factors in the genesis of homosexuality. In Winakur, G. (ed.),Determinants of Human Sexual Behavior, Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Ill.

    Google Scholar 

  • Money, J. (1971). Determinants of human sexual behavior. In Freedman, A. M., Kaplan, H. I., and Kaplan, H. S. (eds.),Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.

    Google Scholar 

  • Money, J., Hampson, J. G., and Hampson, J. L. (1957). Imprinting and the establishment of gender role.Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 77 333–336.

    Google Scholar 

  • Murdock, G. P. (1949).Social Structure, Macmillan, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Neubauer, P. B. (ed.) (1965).Children in Collectives, Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Ill.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rabin, I. A. (1965).Growing Up in a Kibbutz, Springer, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rubin, Z. (1970). Measurement of romantic love.J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 16 265–273.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sade, D. S. (1968). Inhibition of son—mother mating among free-ranging rhesus monkeys.Sci. Psychoanal. 7 18–35.

    Google Scholar 

  • Salzen, E. A. (1968). Discussion of Taketomo.Sci. Psychoanal. 12 184–189.

    Google Scholar 

  • Scott, J. P. (1962). Critical periods in behavioral development.Science 138 949–957.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Shepher, J. (1969a). The child and the parent—child relationship in kibbutz communities in Israel.Assignment Children, Vol. 10, UNESCO, Paris.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shepher, J. (1969b). Familism and social structure: The case of the kibbutz.J. Marriage and Family 31 568–573.

    Google Scholar 

  • Slater, M. K. (1959). Ecological factors in the origin of incest.Amer. Anthropologist 61 1042–1059.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sluckin, W. (1965).Imprinting and Early Learning, Methuen & Co., London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Spiro, M. E. (1956). Is the family universal?Amer. Anthropologist 56 839–846.

    Google Scholar 

  • Spiro, M. E. (1958).Children of the Kibbutz, Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Taketomo, Y. (1968). The application of imprinting to psychodynamics.Sci. Psychoanal. 12 166–183.

    Google Scholar 

  • Talmon, Y. (1964). Mate selection in collective settlements.Amer. Sociol. Rev. 29 491–508.

    Google Scholar 

  • Thorpe, W. H. (1956).Learning and Instinct in Animals, Methuen & Co., London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Weinberg, S. K. (1955).Incest Behavior, Citadel Press, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Westermarck, E. A. (1889).The History of Human Marriage I–III, Allerton Press, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wolf, A. P. (1966). Childhood association, sexual attraction, and the incest taboo: A chinese case.Amer. Anthropologist 68 883–898.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wolf, A. P. (1968). Adopt a daughter-in-law, marry a sister: A Chinese solution to the problem of the incest taboo.Amer. Anthropologist 70 864–874.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wolf, A. P. (1970). Childhood association and sexual attraction: A further test of the Westermarck hypothesis.Amer. Anthropologist 72 503–515.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Additional information

Abridged from Shepher, J. (1971). Self-imposed incest avoidance and exogamy in second generation Kibbutz adults. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Shepher, J. Mate selection among second generation kibbutz adolescents and adults: Incest avoidance and negative imprinting. Arch Sex Behav 1, 293–307 (1971). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01638058

Download citation

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01638058

Keywords

  • Sexual Behavior
  • Social Issue
  • Group Education
  • Mate Selection
  • Marriage Pattern