Laktoseintoleranz und Verzehr von Milch und Milchprodukten

Lactose intolerance and consumption of milk and dairy products

Zusammenfassung

Das Disaccharid Laktose kommt als Bestandteil von Lebensmitteln einzig in Milch und Milchprodukten vor. Im Verdauungstrakt wird die Laktose mit Hilfe des Enzyms ß-Galaktosidase (Laktase) in Glukose und Galaktose aufgespalten, die sodann absorbiert werden. Außer bei den Bewohnern Nord- und Mitteleuropas und der von ihnen abstammenden Bevölkerung Nordamerikas und Australiens verschwindet bei den meisten Menschen die Laktaseaktivität in der Dünndarmmukosa zwischen dem 4. und 6. Lebensjahr. Nach Laktosezufuhr kann es bei ihnen durch die osmotische Wirksamkeit der in den Dickdarm gelangten Laktose und ihrer Fermentation durch die Dickdarmflora zu Beschwerden kommen, zur sogenannten Laktoseintoleranz. Laktoseintoleranten Personen wird undifferenziert empfohlen, auf den Verzehr von Milch und Milchprodukten zu verzichten. Meist können sie jedoch geringe Mengen Milch beschwerdefrei vertragen. Sie können ebenfalls Käse, die keine (Hart- und Halbhartkäse) oder nur wenig (10% der Weichkäse) Laktose enthalten, ohne weiteres verzehren und müssen damit nicht auf eine wichtige Kalziumquelle verzichten. Untersuchungen der letzten 10 Jahre haben gezeigt, daß Joghurt trotz seines nicht unerheblichen Laktosegehaltes von laktoseintoleranten Personen bestens vertragen wird. Dieser Vorteil wird auf die in diesem Produkt vorhandenen lebensfähigen Milchsäurebakterien, welche die sauren Bedingungen des Magens zu überstehen vermögen, sowie auf die im Joghurt enthaltene Laktase zurückgeführt.

Summary

The disaccharide lactose is present as a natural component of foods only in milk and dairy products. In the gastrointestinal tract, lactose is hydrolysed by the enzyme ß-galactosidase (lactase) into glucose and galactose. These components are absorbed. With the exception of the caucasian race, the lactase activity decreases in most people at an age of 4 to 6 years. Lactose intake can cause symptoms of bloating, flatulence, abdominal pain, and diarrhea due to the lactose reaching the large intestine. This phenomenon is called lactose intolerance. It is generally recommended to those persons that they refrain from the consumption of milk and dairy products. However, most lactoseintolerant people are able to digest small amounts of milk. They can also consume cheese that contains no (hard and semi-hard) or only small amounts of lactose (present in only 10 % of soft cheeses). These products are very important sources of calcium. Compared to milk, the lactose content of yogurt is usually lower by about one third. Studies during the last 10 years have shown that in spite of its lactose content yogurt is very well tolerated by lactose intolerant persons. This advantage is ascribed to the presence of living lactic acid bacteria in fermented dairy products which survive passage through the stomach and also to the lactase present in these products.

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Correspondence to Dr. R. Sieber.

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Sieber, R., Stransky, M. & de Vrese, M. Laktoseintoleranz und Verzehr von Milch und Milchprodukten. Z Ernährungswiss 36, 375–393 (1997). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01617834

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Schlüsselwörter

  • Laktose
  • Laktoseintoleranz
  • Milch
  • fermentierte Milchprodukte

Key words

  • Lactose
  • lactose intolerance
  • milk
  • fermented dairy products