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Selective cerebral perfusion via innominate artery in aortic arch replacement without deep hypothermic circulatory arrest

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International Journal of Angiology

Abstract

To attain satisfactory results in aortic arch surgery a reliable method of cerebral protection, avoidance of emboli, and control of hemorrhage is mandatory. Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest is the most common technique at present but gives only a limited period of protection, whereas a complicated aortic arch operation may require more time than anticipated. Therefore the selective cannulation and perfusion of the innominate artery has not been widely used until now because it is uncertain whether the left hemisphere of the brain is adequately perfused. Between 1990 and 1995, 21 of 69 patients within the last 36 months, consisting of 15 men and 6 women averaging 45±13.4 years, underwent operative treatment for aneurysm (n=9) or type A dissection (n=12) involving the aortic valve and aortic arch; selective innominate perfusion (SCP [i]) in moderate hypothermia (28°C) for brain protection was used.

Extended perioperative monitoring included bilateral somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEP), transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD), a computer-aided topographical electroencephalometry (CATEEM), and analysis of the arterial and venous oxygen saturation and desaturation. Mean time periods were 229.7±56.5 minutes for extracorporeal circulation, 151.7±34.1 minutes for aortic cross-clamping, and 67.05±34.03 for selective cerebral perfusion via the innominate artery. Not once did the intraoperative monitoring reveal hints of cerebral damage due to inadequate perfusion. All patients survived surgery but two could not be weaned from the respirator; one died 2 days and the other 6 days after the operation due to multiple organ failure (MOF). Another two patients died after 13 days due to untreatable septic syndrome with pulmonary insufficiency. All four patients died within 30 days, during which time they had aortic dissection involving the complete aortic arch and severe aortic valvular incompetence (grade IV). There was no late death and follow-up time of 19.76±8.04 months revealed an overall mortality rate of 19%. Only temporary neurological affections (left-sided hemiparesis) were found in two patients (9.5%). Additionally, we observed neuropsychological disturbances in one of these.

Our first experience with selective cerebral perfusion via innominate artery and the attendant CATEEM monitoring for assessment of adequate bilateral cerebral perfusion suggests that this method is a useful addition to the armamentarium in complicated aortic arch surgery.

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Wozniak, G., Dapper, F., Zickmann, B. et al. Selective cerebral perfusion via innominate artery in aortic arch replacement without deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. International Journal of Angiology 8, 50–56 (1999). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01616844

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