Advertisement

Chirality and life

  • William A. Bonner
Article

Abstract

The crucial role of homochirality and chiral homogeneity in the self-replication of contemporary biopolymers is emphasized, and the experimentally demonstrated advantages of these chirality attributes in simpler polymeric systems are summarized. The implausibility of life without chirality and hence of a biogenic scenario for the origin of chiral molecules is stressed, and chance and determinate abiotic mechanisms for the origin of chirality are reviewed briefly in the context of their potential viability on the primitive Earth. It is concluded that all such mechanisms would be non-viable, and that the turbulent prebiotic environment would require an ongoing extraterrestrial source for the accumulation of chiral molecules on the primitive Earth. A scenario is described wherein the circularly polarized ultraviolet synchrotron radiation from the neutron star remnants of supernovae engenders asymmetric photolysis of the racemic constituents in the organic mantles on interstellar dust grains, whereupon these chiral constituents are transported repetitively to the primative Earth by direct accretion of the interstellar dust or through impacts of comets and asteroids.

Keywords

Chiral Molecule Interstellar Dust Origin Life Chiral Purity Racemic Substrate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Addadi, L. and Lahav, M.: 1979, in Walker, D.C. (ed.), Origins of Optical Activity in Nature, Elsevier, New York, pp. 179–192.Google Scholar
  2. Addadi, L., Cohen, M. D., and Lahav, M.: 1979, in Selegny, E. (ed.), Optically Active Polymers, Kluwer Acad. Publ., Dordrecht, Holland, pp. 183–197.Google Scholar
  3. Addadi, L., Berkovitch-Yellin, Z., Weissbuch, I., van Mil, J., Shimon, L. J. W., Lahav, M., and Leiserowitz, L.: 1985,Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 24, 466.Google Scholar
  4. Agarwal, V. K., Schutte, W., Greenberg, J. M., Ferris, J. P., Briggs, R., Conner, S., van de Bult, C. E. P. M., and Baas, F.: 1986,Origins of Life 16, 21.Google Scholar
  5. Amariglio, A., Amariglio, H., and Duval, X.: 1968,Helv. Chim. Acta 51, 2110.Google Scholar
  6. Avetisov, V. A. and Goldanskii, V. I.: 1991,BioSystems 25, 141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Avetisov, V. A., Anikin, S. A., Goldanskii, V. I., and Kuzmin, V. V.: 1985,Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR-Biophys. 282, 115.Google Scholar
  8. Avetisov, V. A., Goldanskii, V. I., and Kuzmin, V. V.: 1991,Physics Today 44, 33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Arrhenius, S.: 1903, in Goldsmith, D. (ed.), The Quest for Extraterrestrial Life, University Science Books, California, 1980, pp. 32–33.Google Scholar
  10. Bada, J. L. and Miller, S. L.: 1987,BioSystems 20, 21.Google Scholar
  11. Balavoine, G., Moradpour, A., and Kagan, H. B.: 1974,J. Am. Chem. Soc. 96, 5152.Google Scholar
  12. Barbier, B. and Brack, A.: 1992,J. Am. Chem. Soc. 114, 3511.Google Scholar
  13. Barron, L. D.: 1987,BioSystems 20, 7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Blair, N. E. and Bonner, W. A.: 1980,Origins of Life 10, 255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Blair, N. E. and Bonner, W. A.: 1981,Origins of Life 11, 331.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Blair, N. E., Dirbas, F. M., and Bonner, W. A.: 1981,Tetrahedron 37, 27.Google Scholar
  17. Blout, E. R., Doty, P., and Yang, J. T.: 1957,J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79, 749.Google Scholar
  18. Blout, E. R. and Idelson, M.: 1956,J. Am. Chem. Soc. 78, 3857.Google Scholar
  19. Bondy, S. C. and Harrington, M. E.: 1979,Science 203, 1243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bonner, W. A.: 1972, in Ponnamperuma, C. (ed.), Exobiology, North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 170–234.Google Scholar
  21. Bonner, W. A.: 1988, in Eliell, E. L. and Wilen, S. H. (eds.), Topics in Stereochemistry, Vol. 18, John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 1–96.Google Scholar
  22. Bonner, W. A.: 1990,Origins Life Evol Biosphere 20, 1.Google Scholar
  23. Bonner, W. A.: 1991,Origins Life Evol. Biosphere 21, 59–111.Google Scholar
  24. Bonner, W. A.: 1992,Origins Life Evol. Biosphere 21, 407–420.Google Scholar
  25. Bonner, W. A.: 1994,Origins Life Evol. Biosphere 24, 63.Google Scholar
  26. Bonner, W. A. and Flores, J. J.: 1973,Curr. Mod. Biol. 5, 103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Bonner, W. A. and Flores, J. J.: 1975,Origins of Life 6, 187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Bonner, W. A. and Lemmon, R. M.: 1978,Bioorg. Chem. 7, 175.Google Scholar
  29. Bonner, W. A. and Rubenstein, E.: 1990, in Ponnamperuma, C. and Eirich, F. R. (eds.), Prebiological Self Organization of Matter, A. Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Virginia, pp. 35–50.Google Scholar
  30. Bonner, W. A., Blair, N. E., and Lemmon, R. M.: 1979a,Origins of Life 9, 279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Bonner, W. A., Kavasmaneck, P. R., Martin, F. S., and Flores, J. J.: 1974,Science 186, 143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Bonner, W. A., Kavasmaneck, P. R., Martin, F. S., and Flores, J. J.: 1975,Origins of Life 6, 367.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Bonner, W. A., Blair, N. E., Lemmon, R. M., Flores, J. J., and Pollock, G. E.: 1979b,Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 43, 1841.Google Scholar
  34. Brack, A. and Spach, G.: 1979,J. Mol. Evol. 13, 35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Brack, A. and Spach, G.: 1980,J. Mol. Evol. 15, 231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Brack, A. and Spach, G.: 1981,Origins of Life 11, 135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Briggs, R., Ertem, G., Ferris, J. P., Greenberg, J. M., McCain, P. J., Mendoza-Gomez, C. X., and Schutte, W.: 1992,Orig. Life Evol. Biosphere 22, 287.Google Scholar
  38. Calvin, M.: 1969, Chemical Evolution, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 149–152.Google Scholar
  39. Chenchaiah, P. C, Holland, H. L., and Richardson, M. F.: 1982, J. Chem. Soc, Chem. Commun., 436.Google Scholar
  40. Chyba, C. F.: 1990,Nature 343, 129.Google Scholar
  41. Chyba, C. and Sagan, C: 1992,Nature 355, 125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Degens, E. T., Matheja, J., and Jackson, T. A.: 1970,Nature 227, 492.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Delsemme, A.: 1991–1992,Origins Life Evol. Biosphere 21, 279.Google Scholar
  44. Engel, M. H., Macko, S. A., and Silfer, J. A.: 1990,Nature 348, 47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Figureau, A., Duval, E., and Boukenter, A.: 1992, LYCEN 9244, preprint.Google Scholar
  46. Frank, F. C: 1953,Biochem. Biophys. Acta 11, 459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Friebele, E., Shimoyama, A., Hare, P. E., and Ponnamperuma, C, 1981,Origins of Life 11, 173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Frondel, C.: 1978,Amer. Minerol. 63, 22.Google Scholar
  49. Goldanskii, V. I. and Kuzmin, V. V.: 1988, Z.Phys. Chem. 269, 216.Google Scholar
  50. Green, B. S., Lahav, M., and Schmidt, G. M. J.: 1975,Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 29, 187.Google Scholar
  51. Green, B. S., Lahav, M., and Rabinovich, D.: 1979,Acc. Chem. Res. 12, 191.Google Scholar
  52. Greenberg, J. M.: 1984,Sci. Am. 250, 124.Google Scholar
  53. Greenberg, J. M.: 1992, Private communication.Google Scholar
  54. Greenberg, J. M., Zhao, N., and Hage, J.: 1989,Ann. Phys. Fr. 14, 103.Google Scholar
  55. Havinga, E.: 1954,Biochem. Biophys. Acta 13, 171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Huebner, W. F. and Boice, D. C.: 1991–1992,Origins Life Evol. Biosphere 21, 299.Google Scholar
  57. Idelson, M. and Blout, E. R.: 1958,J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80, 2387.Google Scholar
  58. Jackson, T. A.: 1971,Chem. Geol. 7, 295.Google Scholar
  59. Jaeger, F. M.: 1930, Optical Activity and High Temperature Measurements, McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 75–76.Google Scholar
  60. Joyce, G. F., Visser, G. M., van Boeckel, C. A. A., van Boom, J. H., Orgel, L. E., and van Westrenen, J.: 1984,Nature 310, 602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Kagan, H. B. and Fiaud, J. C.: 1988, in Eliel, E. L. and Wilen, S. H. (eds.), Topics in Stereochemistry. Vol. 18, John Wiley & Sons, New lYork, pp. 249–330.Google Scholar
  62. Karagounis, G. and Coumoulos, G.: 1938,Nature 142, 162.Google Scholar
  63. Keszthelyi, L.: 1984,Origins of Life 14, 375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Keszthelyi, L., Czege, J., Fajszi, C., Posfai, J., and Goldanskii, V. I.: 1979, in Walker, D. C. (ed.), Origins of Optical Activity in Nature, Elsevier, New York, pp. 229–244.Google Scholar
  65. Khasanov, M. M. and Gladyshev, G. P.: 1980,Origins of Life 10, 247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Kuhn, W. and Braun, E.: 1929,Naturwissenschaften 17, 227.Google Scholar
  67. Kulkarni, R. K. and Morawetz, H.: 1961,J. Polym. Sci. 54, 491.Google Scholar
  68. Kvenvolden, K., Lawless, J. G., and Ponnamperuma, C: 1971,Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 68, 486.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Lahav, M., Laub, F., Gati, E., Leiserowitz, L., and Ludmer, Z.: 1976,J. Am. Chem. Soc. 98, 1620.Google Scholar
  70. MacDermott, A. J. and Tranter, G. E.: 1989,Croat. Chem. Acta. 62, 165.Google Scholar
  71. Maher, K. A. and Stevenson, D. J.: 1988,Nature 331, 612.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Marcus, J. N. and Olsen, M. A.: 1991, in Newburn, R. L., Neugebauer, M., and Rahe, J. (eds.), Comets in the Post-Bailey Era, Kluwer Acad. Publ., Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 439–462.Google Scholar
  73. Mason, S. F.: 1986,Nuov. J. Chem. 10, 739.Google Scholar
  74. Mason, S. F. and Tranter, G. E.: 1985,Proc. Roy. Soc. London A 397, 45.Google Scholar
  75. McCullough, J. J. and Lemmon, R. M.: 1974,J. Mol. Evol. 3, 57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Miller, S. L. and Orgel, L. E.: 1974, The Origins of Life on Earth, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N. J., pp. 166–174.Google Scholar
  77. Morowitz, H. J.: 1969,J. Theor. Biol. 25, 491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Nash, J. M.: 1993, Oct. 11,TIME 142, 68.Google Scholar
  79. Oberbeck, V. R. and Aggarwal, H.: 1991–1992,Origins Life Evol. Biosphere 21, 317.Google Scholar
  80. Oberbeck, V. R. and Fogleman, G.: 1989,Origins Life Evol. Biosphere 19, 549.Google Scholar
  81. Oberbeck, V. R. and Fogleman, G.: 1990,Origins Life Evol. Biosphere 20, 181.Google Scholar
  82. Oró, J.: 1961,Nature 190, 389.Google Scholar
  83. Oró, J., Nakaparksin, S., Lichtenstein, H., and Gil-Av, E.: 1971,Nature 230, 107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Pace, N. R.: 1991,Cell 65, 531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Palache, C, Berman, H. and Frondel, C: 1962, Dana's System of Minerology., 7th Ed., Vol. III, John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 16–17.Google Scholar
  86. Pasteur, L.: 1860, Researches on Molecular Asymmetry, Univ. Chicago Press, Chicago, 1914, pp. 29, 45.Google Scholar
  87. Ramamurthy, V. and Venkatesan, K.: 1987,Chem. Rev. 87, 433.Google Scholar
  88. Rich, A.: 1993, Private communication, August 5.Google Scholar
  89. Rubenstein, E., Bonner, W. A., Noyes, H. P., and Brown, G. S.: 1983,Nature 306, 118.Google Scholar
  90. Sagan, C: 1974,Origins of Life 5, 497.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Salam, A.: 1991,J. Mol. Evol. 33, 105.Google Scholar
  92. Scheffer, J. R. and Pokkuluri, P. R.: 1991, in Ramamurthy, V. (ed), Photochemistry in Organized & Constrained Media, VCH Publishers, Inc., New York; pp. 186–246.Google Scholar
  93. Shapiro, R.: 1986, Origins — a Skeptics Guide to the Creation of Life on Earth, Summit Books, New York, pp. 98–116.Google Scholar
  94. Sleep, N. H., Zahnle, K. J., Kasting, J. F., and Morowitz, H. J.: 1989,Nature 343, 139.Google Scholar
  95. Takahashi, F., Tomii, K., and Takahashi, H.: 1986,Electrochim. Acta 31, 127.Google Scholar
  96. Terent'ev, A. P. and Klabunovskii, E. I.: 1957, in Clark, F. and Synge R. L. M. (eds), The Origin of Life on Earth, Pergamon Press, New York, 1959, pp. 95–105.Google Scholar
  97. Thiemann, W.: 1974,J. Mol. Evol. 4, 85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Ulbricht, T. L. V.: 1959,Quart. Rev. 13, 48.Google Scholar
  99. Vaida, M., Popovitz-Biro, R., Leiserowitz, L, and Lahav, M.: 1991, in Ramamurthy, V. (ed), Photochemistry in Organized & Constrained Media, VCH Publishers, Inc., New York; pp. 248–302.Google Scholar
  100. Vaida, M., Shimon, L. J. W., van Mil,J., Ernst-Cabrera, K., Addadi, L., Leiserowitz, L., and Lahav, M.: 1989,J. Am. Chem. Soc. 111, 1029.Google Scholar
  101. Wald, G.: 1957,Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 69, 353.Google Scholar
  102. Waldrop, M. M.: 1990,Science 250, 1078.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Weber, A. L.: 1989,Origins Life Evol. Biosphere 19, 7.Google Scholar
  104. Weingarten, H.: 1958,J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80, 352.Google Scholar
  105. Weissbuch, I., Addadi, L., Leiserowitz, L., and Lahav, M: 1988,J. Am. Chem. Soc. 110, 561.Google Scholar
  106. Weissbuch, I., Addadi, L., Berkovitch-Yellin, Z., Gati, E. Lahav, M., and Leiserowitz, L.: 1984,Nature 310, 161.Google Scholar
  107. Yamagata, Y.: 1966,J. Theor. Biol. 11, 495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Youatt, J. B. and Brown, R. D.: 1981,Science 212, 1145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Zhang, S., Holmes, T., Lockshin, C., and Rich, A.: 1993,Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90, 3334.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • William A. Bonner
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryStanford UniversityStanfordUSA

Personalised recommendations