Journal of Industrial Microbiology

, Volume 4, Issue 4, pp 315–323 | Cite as

Sugar utilization by yeast during fermentation

  • Tony D'Amore
  • Inge Russell
  • Graham G. Stewart
Original Papers


When glucose and fructose are fermented separately, the uptake profiles indicate that both sugars are utilized at similar rates. However, when fermentations are conducted in media containing an equal concentration of glucose and fructose, glucose is utilized at approximately twice the rate of fructose. The preferential uptake of glucose also occurred when sucrose, which was first rapidly hydrolyzed into glucose and fructose by the action of the enzyme invertase, was employed as a substrate. Similar results were observed in the fermentation of brewer's wort and wort containing 30% sucrose and 30% glucose as adjuncts. In addition, the high levels of glucose in the wort exerted severe catabolite repression on maltose utilization in theSaccharmyces uvarum (carlsbergensis) brewing strain. Kinetic analysis of glucose and fructose uptake inSaccharomyces cerevisiae revealed aKm of 1.6 mM for glucose and 20 mM for fructose. Thus, the yeast strain has a higher affinity for glucose than fructose. Growth on glucose or fructose had no repressible effect on the uptake of either sugar. In addition, glucose inhibited fructose uptake by 60% and likewise fructose inhibited, glucose uptake by 40%. These results indicate that glucose and fructose share the same membrane transport components.

Key words

Sugar uptake Yeast Brewer's wort 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bisson, L.F. and D.G. Fraenkel. 1983. Involvement of kinases in glucose and fructose uptake bySaccharomyces cerevisiae. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 80: 1730–1734.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bisson, L.F. and D.G. Fraenkel. 1984. Expression of kinasedependent glucose uptake inSaccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Bacteriol. 159: 1013–1017.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bisson, L.F., L. Neigeborn, M. Carlson and D.G. Fraenkel. 1987. TheSNF3 gene is required for high-affinity glucose transport inSaccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Bacteriol. 169: 1656–1662.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cason, D.T., G.C. Reid and E.M.S. Gatner. 1987. On the differing rates of fructose and glucose utilization inSaccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Inst. Brew. 93:23–25.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hockney, R.C. and R.F. Freeman. 1980. Gratuitous catabolite repression by glucosamine of maltose utilization ofSaccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Gen. Microbiol. 121: 479–482.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hopkins, R.H. and R.H. Roberts. 1935. Kinetics of alcoholic fermentation of sugar by brewer's yeast. II Relative rates of fermentation of glucose and fructose. Biochem. J. 29: 931–936.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Orlowski, J.H. and J.P. Barford. 1987. The mechanism of uptake of multiple sugars bySaccharomyces cerevisiae in batch culture under fully aerobic conditions. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 25: 459–463.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Panchal, C.J. and G.G. Stewart. 1982. The influence of media conditions on the utilization of monosaccharides by a strain ofSaccharomyces uvarum (carlsbergensis). J. Inst. Brew. 87: 278–281.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Stewart, G.G., J. Erratt, I. Garrison, T. Goring and I. Hancock. 1979. Studies on the utilization of wort carbohydrates by brewer's yeast strains. MBAA Tech. Quart. 16:543–549.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Stewart, G.G., C.J. Panchal, I. Russell and A.M. Sills. 1982. Advances in ethanol from sugars and starch—a panoramic paper. In: Ethanol from Biomass (Duckworth, H.E. and E.A. Thompson, eds.), pp. 4–57, Royal Society of Canada, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Stewart, G.G., I. Russell and A.M. Sills. 1983. Factors that control the utilization of wort carbohydrates by yeast. MBAA Tech Quart. 20:1–8.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Stewart, G.G., R.M. Jones and I. Russell. 1985. The use of derepressed yeast mutants in the fermentation of brewing yeast. European Brewery Convention: Proceedings of the 20th Congress, Helsinki, pp. 243–250, IRL Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Stewart, G.G., T. D'Amore, C.J. Panchal and I. Russell. 1989. Regulation of sugar uptake in yeasts. Inst. Brew. Proc. Conv. (Aust. and N.Z. Sect.), 20, in press.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Thirwell, A.J. and R.L. Busby. 1982. Liquid sugar as a brewing adjunct. Inst. Brew. Proc. Conv. (Aust. and N.Z. Sect.) 17: 77–84.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Society for Industrial Microbiology 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tony D'Amore
    • 1
  • Inge Russell
    • 1
  • Graham G. Stewart
    • 1
  1. 1.Research DepartmentLabatt Brewing Company LimitedLondonCanada

Personalised recommendations