Social Choice and Welfare

, Volume 7, Issue 2, pp 99–108 | Cite as

The borda and condorcet principles: Three medieval applications

  • I. McLean


We report three medieval works, hitherto unknown to social choice, which discuss procedures for elections when there are more than two candidates. Two of the three propose Borda methods and the third a Condorcet method of successive pairwise comparison. All three discuss problems of manipulation. One of them displays a matrix for pairwise comparisons; this is a work written in 1299, nearly 600 years before the matrix notation was believed to have been invented by C. L. Dodgson. We conclude with a review of the theory of voting in medieval Europe.


Pairwise Comparison Economic Theory Social Choice Matrix Notation Condorcet Method 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. McLean
    • 1
  1. 1.Oxford and John London, St. Cross CollegeUniversity CollegeOxfordEngland

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