Three studies describe the development and initial validation of the Gender Attitude Inventory (GAI), a structured inventory that assesses attitudes toward the multiple objects that organize college students' thoughts and feelings about sex and gender. An intergroup relations perspective was used to specify the universe of gender-related targets and to construct a preliminary instrument. Factor analyses of the results of two sequential studies yielded a 109-item inventory with 14 content-specific attitude areas and three second-order factors. In Study 3 GAI scales were shown to have acceptable internal consistency and temporal stability, as well as convergent and discriminant validity. In terms of race/ethnicity, most respondents were white (ranging from 69% to 82% across the three studies).
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Ashmore, R. D. (1990). Sex, gender, and the individual. In L. A. Pervin (Ed.),Handbook of personality: Theory and research. New York: Guilford Press.
Ashmore, R. D., & Del Boca, F. K. (1986b). Toward a social psychology of female-male relations. In R. D. Ashmore & F. K. Del Boca (Eds.),The social psychology of female-male relations: A critical analysis of central concepts. New York: Academic Press.
Ashmore, R. D., & Del Boca, F. K. (1987).The development and validation of a structured inventory to assess the multiple components of gender-related verbal attitudes: A progress report. Unpublished manuscript, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ.
Ashmore, R. D., Del Boca, F. K., & Wohlers, A. J. (1986). Gender stereotypes. In R. D. Ashmore & F. K. Del Boca (Eds.),The social psychology of female-male relations: A critical analysis of central concepts. New York: Academic Press.
Beere, C. A. (1979).Women and women's issues: A handbook of tests and measures. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Beere, C. A. (1990a).Gender roles: A handbook of tests and measures. New York: Greenwood Press.
Beere, C. A. (1990b).Sex and gender issues: A handbook of tests and measures. New York: Greenwood Press.
Beere, C. A., King, D. W., Beere, D. B., & King, L. A. (1984). The sex-role egalitarianism scale: A measure of attitudes toward equality between the sexes.Sex Roles, 10, 863–876.
Benson, P. & Vincent, S. M. (1980). Development and validation of the Sexist Attitudes Toward Women Scale.Psychology of Women Quarterly, 5, 276–291.
Brannon, R. (1978). Measuring attitudes toward women (and otherwise): A methodological critique. In J. A. Sherman & F. L. Denmark (Eds.),The psychology of women: Future directions in research. New York: Psychological Dimensions.
Buhrke, R. A. (1988). Factor dimensions across different measures of sex role ideology.Sex Roles, 18, 309–321.
Campbell, D. T., & Fiske, D. W. (1959). Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait-multimethod matrix.Psychological Bulletin, 56, 81–105.
Check, J. V. P. (1984).The hostility toward women scale. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Psychology Department, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
Check, J. V. P. (1988). Hostility toward women: Some theoretical considerations. In G. W. Russell (Ed.),Violence in intimate relations. Great Neck, NY: PMA Publishing.
Comrey, A. L. (1988). Factor-analytic methods of scale development in personality and clinical psychology.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 754–761.
Cronbach, L. J., & Meehl, P. E. (1955). Construct validity in psychological tests.Psychological Bulletin, 52, 281–302.
Deaux, K. (1987). Psychological constructions of masculinity and femininity. In J. M. Reinisch, L. A. Rosenblum, & S. A. Sanders, (Eds.),Masculinity/femininity: Basic perspectives (Vol. 1). New York: Oxford University Press.
Del Boca, F. K., & Ashmore, R. D. (1986). Male-female relations: A summing up and notes toward a social-psychological theory. In R. D. Ashmore & F. K. Del Boca (Eds.),The social psychology of female-male relations: A critical analysis of central concepts. New York: Academic Press.
Del Boca, F. K., Ashmore, R. D., & McManus, M. A. (1986). Gender-related attitudes. In R. D. Ashmore & F. K. Del Boca (Eds.),The social psychology of female-male relations: A critical analysis of central concepts. New York: Academic Press.
Eagly, A. H., & Mladinic, A. (1989). Gender stereotypes and attitudes toward women and men.Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 15, 543–558.
Eagly, A. H., Mladinic, A., & Otto, S. (1991). Are women evaluated more favorably than men? An analysis of attitudes, beliefs, and emotions.Psychology of Women Quarterly, 15, 203–216.
Elmore, P. B., Brodsky, A. M., & Naffziger, N. (1975).The attitudes toward feminist issues scale: A validation study. Paper presented at the 31st meeting of the American Personnel and Guidance Association, New York.
Fassinger, R. E. (1994). Development and testing of the Attitudes Toward Feminism and the Women's Movement (FWM) Scale.Psychology of Women Quarterly, 18, 389–402.
Harman, H. H. (1976).Modern factor analysis (3rd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Herek, G. M. (1988). Heterosexuals' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men: Correlates and gender differences.Journal of Sex Research, 25, 451–477.
Holland, D. C., & Eisenhart, M. A. (1990).Educated in romance: Women, achievement, and college culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Jackson, D. N. (1976).Jackson Personality Inventory. Port Huron, MI: Research Psychologists Press.
Jöreskog, K. G., & Lawley, D. N. (1968). New methods in maximum likelihood factor analysis.British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 21, 85–96.
Kerlinger, F. N. (1984).Liberalism, conservatism, and the structure of social attitudes. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
King, D. W., & King, L. A. (1983). Measurement precision of the Sex-Role Egalitarianism Scale: A generalizability analysis.Educational and Psychological Measurement, 43 435–447.
Kirkpatrick, C. (1936). Content of a scale for measuring attitudes toward feminism.Sociology and Social Research, 20, 512–526.
Mason, K. O., Denison, D. R., & Schacht, A. J. (1975).Sex-role attitude items and scales from U.S. sample surveys. Report published by Population Studies Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
Nadler, E. B., & Morrow, W. R. (1959). Authoritarian attitudes toward women, and their correlates.Journal of Social Psychology, 49, 113–123.
Norusis, M. J. (1993).SPSS for windows: Professional statistics, Release 6.0. Chicago, SPSS.
Paulhus, D. L. (1984). Two component models of social desirability responding.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 598–609.
Peters, L. H., Terborg, J. R., & Taynor, J. (1974). Women as Managers Scale (WAMS): A measure of attitudes toward women in managerial positions.Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 4, 27 (Ms. No. 585).
Ruble, D. N., & Ruble, T. L. (1985). Sex stereotypes. In A. G. Miller (Ed.),In the eye of the beholder: Contemporary issues in stereotyping. New York: Praeger.
Sherif, C. W. (1984). Needed concepts in the study of gender identity.Psychology of Women Quarterly, 6, 375–398.
Spence, J. T., & Helmreich, R. L. (1978).Masculinity and femininity: The psychological dimensions, correlates, and antecedents. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Staines, G. L., & Libby, P. L. (1986). Men and women in role relationships. In R. D. Ashmore & F. K. Del Boca (Eds.),The social psychology of female-male relations: A critical analysis of central concepts. New York: Academic Press.
Taylor, M. C., & Hall, J. A. (1982). Psychological androgyny: A review and reformulation of theories, methods, and conclusions.Psychological Bulletin, 92, 347–366.
Weigel, R. H., & Newman, L. S. (1976). Increasing attitude-behavior correspondence by broadening the scope of the behavioral measure.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 33, 793–802.
About this article
Cite this article
Ashmore, R.D., Del Boca, F.K. & Bilder, S.M. Construction and validation of the Gender Attitude Inventory, a structured inventory to assess multiple dimensions of gender attitudes. Sex Roles 32, 753–785 (1995). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01560188
- Internal Consistency
- College Student
- Social Psychology
- Discriminant Validity
- Temporal Stability