Climate, plant response and development of dunes on barrier beaches along the U.S. east coast
In recent years, the U.S. National Park Service has taken responsibility for eight National Seashores along the East and Gulf Coasts and has been supporting research aimed at an understanding of natural processes, human effects, and management techniques that will accomplish various goals related to public use. The importance of developing management approaches, including dune stabilization, consistent with goals of individual Seashores and in keeping with natural dune dynamics, has become increasingly clear. Current studies underway deal with variations in dune ecology along the coast and in the response of dune species to environmental variables. While certain basic processes (such as dune building or migration, inlet formation, littoral transport, and overwash) occur all along the coast, they do not do so with the same importance or frequency. The relative significance of such processes depends on the general climatic and oceanic conditions of any given area. Prevailing winds, shoreline orientation, average wave energies, sea level change, storm frequency, off shore profiles, shore configuration, and tidal range are important environmental factors which determine the relative importance of dune building, overwash, or various combinations of the two. Added to the climatic factors are the response of dune strand species to environmental forces and the distribution of adapted species along the coast. The behavior of plants adapted to dune building, overwash, or both, can be a significant factor in the development of shoreline morphology.
KeywordsImportant Environmental Factor Storm Frequency Barrier Beach Dune Stabilization National Seashore
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- ART, H. W. (1971): Atmospheric Salts in the Functioning of a Maritime Forest Ecosystem. Ph. D. Dissertation, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.Google Scholar
- AU, SHU-FUN. (1969): Vegetation and Ecological Processes on Shackleford Bank, N. C. Ph. D. Dissertation, Duke University, Durham, N. C.Google Scholar
- GODFREY, P. J. (1970): Oceanic Overwash and its Ecological Implications on the Outer Banks of North Carolina. Office of the Chief Scientist, U.S. National Park Service, Washington, D. C.Google Scholar
- GODFREY, P. J. and GODFREY, M. M., (1974 a): The role of overwash and inlet dynamics in the formation of salt marshes on North Carolina barrier islands.In: Ecology of Halophytes, R. J. Reinold and W. H. Queen, (ed.), Academic Press, New York, 407–427.Google Scholar
- GODFREY, P. J. and GODFREY, M. M. (1974 b.): An ecological approach to dune management in the National Recreation areas of the U.S. East Coast. Int. J. Biometeor., 18: 101–110.Google Scholar
- GODFREY, P. J. and GODFREY, M. M., (1976): Barrier Island Ecology of Cape Lookout National Seashore and Vicinity, North Carolina. National Park Service Scientific Monograph Series No. 9. Supt. of Documents, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 160 pp.Google Scholar
- HIGGINS, E. A. T., RAPPLEYE, R. and BROWN, R. (1971): The flora and ecology of Assateague Island. Bull. A-172, Agr. Exp. Station, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland.Google Scholar
- HOSIER, P. (1973): The Effects of Oceanic Overwash on the Vegetation of Core and Shackleford Banks. Ph. D. Dissertation, Duke University, Durham, N. C.Google Scholar
- MARTIN, W. E. (1959): The vegetation of Island Beach State Park, New Jersey. Ecol. Monog., 29: 1–46.Google Scholar
- McCORMICK, J., and Associates. 1975. Environmental inventory of the Fire Island National Seashore and the William Floyd Estate, Suffolk County, New York. Report to the National Park Service on Contract 2000-4-0010. Unpublished. 460 pp.Google Scholar
- STRAHLER, A. N. (1966): A Geologists View of Cape Cod. The Natural History Press, Garden City, N. Y., 115 pp.Google Scholar