Near rings without zero divisors
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Near rings without zero divisors, and a dual structure, near codomains, are studied. It is shown that a near ring is a near field if and only if it is an integral near ring, a near codomain, and has a non-zero distributive element. If the additive group (N, +) of a near integral domainN is cohopfian, then (N, +) possesses a fixed point free automorphism which is either torsion free or of prime order. This generalizes a well-known theorem of Ligh for finite near integral domains. A result ofGanesan  on the non-zero divisors in a finite ring is generalized to near rings.
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