Research on women in print advertisements has shown that pictures of women's bodies and body parts (“body-isms”) appear more often than pictures of men's bodies. Men's faces (“face-isms”) are photographed more often than their bodies. This present study is the first to confirm this finding for television commercials. Results showed that men appear twice as often as women in beer commercials. The body-isms of women significantly outnumbered the body-isms of men. Women also appeared in swimwear more often than men, thus increasing the photo opportunities for body-isms. This study raises concerns about the dehumanizing influence of these images in beer commercials, and their association with alcohol use and the violence in the televised sporting events during which beer commercials are frequently aired.
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Iijima Hall, C.C., Crum, M.J. Women and “body-isms” in television beer commercials. Sex Roles 31, 329–337 (1994). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01544592
- Social Psychology
- Body Part
- Television Commercial
- Print Advertisement