Sex Roles

, Volume 34, Issue 11–12, pp 739–765 | Cite as

Gender and family factors as predictors of late adolescent emotional expressiveness and adjustment: A longitudinal study

  • Phyllis Bronstein
  • Maria Briones
  • Teri Brooks
  • Brookes Cowan


This study examined the longterm effects of the socialization of emotion in a sample of European American families. Late adolescents, whose families had been more emotionally expressive and accepting of emotions when they were in fifth grade, were more likely to report showing emotions not traditionally associated with their gender roles—specifically, males reported a greater propensity for crying, and females reported a greater tendency to express anger. In addition, in late adolescence, greater frequency of showing fear and showing warmth or affection were associated with higher levels of social and psychological adjustment—whereas crying was associated with better adjustment for males and poorer adjustment for females. Overall, adolescent females tended to report a higher level of emotional expressiveness and a higher level of family support of emotions than did adolescent males.


Longitudinal Study Social Psychology Longterm Effect Gender Role Family Support 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Phyllis Bronstein
    • 1
  • Maria Briones
    • 1
  • Teri Brooks
    • 1
  • Brookes Cowan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of VermontBurlingtonUSA

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