Advertisement

Sex Roles

, Volume 34, Issue 3–4, pp 171–188 | Cite as

Undergraduates regard deviation from occupational gender stereotypes as costly for women

  • Janice D. Yoder
  • Thomas L. Schleicher
Article

Abstract

Studies from the 1970s have shown deviation from norms defining the gender-appropriateness of occupations to be costly for both women and men. Two hundred thirty undergraduates wrote open-ended stories and rated a stimulus person, Anne or John, who was described at the top of his/her class in medicine or one of four persistently gender-skewed fields: nursing, day care, electrical engineering, and electrician. Across all five occupations, negative imagery in stories about Anne and John in gender-incongruent occupations disappeared. However, when Anne succeeded in the two currently female-incongruent fields, raters treated her as a personal and social deviate by distancing themselves and by denigrating her role behaviors and personal traits, including her femininity. Parallel costs were not found for John nor were Anne's work-related qualities undermined. Undergraduates expect deviation from occupational gender-types in the 1990s to be personally costly for women, but not for men.

Keywords

Social Psychology Personal Trait Electrical Engineering Gender Stereotype Role Behavior 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Betz, N. E., & Fitzgerald, L. E. (1987).The career psychology of women. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  2. Brenner, O. C., Tomkiewicz, J., & Schein, V. E. (1989). The relationship between sex role stereotypes and requisite management characteristics revisited.Academy of Management Journal, 32 662–669.Google Scholar
  3. Cherry, F., & Deaux, K. (1978). Fear of success versus fear of gender-inappropriate behavior.Sex Roles, 4 97–101.Google Scholar
  4. Cohen, S. L., & Bunker, K. A. (1975). Subtle effects of sex role stereotypes on recruiters' hiring decisions.Journal of Applied Psychology, 60 566–572.Google Scholar
  5. Costrich, N., Feinstein, J., Kidder, J., Marecek, J., & Pascale, L. (1975). When stereotypes hurt: Three studies of penalties for sex-role reversals.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 11 520–530.Google Scholar
  6. Crawford, M. (1988). Gender, age, and the social evaluation of assertion.Behavior Modification, 12 549–564.Google Scholar
  7. Deaux, K., & Emswiller, T. (1974). Explanations of successful performance on sex-linked tasks: What is skill for the male is luck for the female.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 29 80–85.Google Scholar
  8. Deaux, K., & Lewis, L. L. (1983). Components of gender stereotypes.Psychological Documents, 13 25 (Ms. No. 2583).Google Scholar
  9. Deaux, K., & Lewis, L. L. (1984). Structure of gender stereotypes: Interrelationships among components and gender label.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46 991–1004.Google Scholar
  10. Digest of educational statistics. (1976). Washington, DC: Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Education Division, National Center for Educational Statistics.Google Scholar
  11. Digest of educational statistics. (1992). Washington, DC: Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Education Division, National Center for Educational Statistics.Google Scholar
  12. Dovidio, J. F., & Gaertner, S. L. (1986).Prejudice, discrimination. and racism. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  13. Eagly, A. H., & Steffen, V. J. (1984). Gender stereotypes stem from the distribution of women and men into social roles.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46 735–754.Google Scholar
  14. Eagly, A. H., & Steffen, V. J. (1988). A note on assessing stereotypes.Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 14 676–680.Google Scholar
  15. Feather, N. T., & Simon, J. G. (1975). Reactions to male and female success and failure in sex-linked occupations: Impressions of personality, causal attributions, and perceived likelihood of different consequences.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31 20–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Feldman-Summers, S., & Kiesler, S. B. (1974). Those who are number two try harder: The effect of sex on attributions of causality.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 30 846–855.Google Scholar
  17. Garland, H., Hale, K. F., & Burnson, M. (1982). Attributions for the success and failure of female managers: A replication and extension.Psychology of Women Quarterly, 7 155–162.Google Scholar
  18. Gervasio, A. H., & Crawford, M. (1989). Social evaluations of assertiveness: A critique and speech act reformulation.Psychology of Women Quarterly, 13 1–26.Google Scholar
  19. Glick, P., Zion, C., & Nelson, C. (1988). What mediates sex discrimination in hiring decisions?Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55 178–186.Google Scholar
  20. Greenhaus, J. H., & Parasuraman, S. (1993). Job performance attributions and career advancement prospects: An examination of gender and race effects.Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 55 273–297.Google Scholar
  21. Hagen, R. I., & Kahn, A. (1975) Discrimination against competent women.Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 5 362–376.Google Scholar
  22. Heilman, M. (1984). Information as a deterrent against sex discrimination: The effects of sex and information type on preliminary employment decisions.Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 33 174–186.Google Scholar
  23. Heilman, M. E., Block, C. J., Martell, R. F., & Simon, M. C. (1989). Has anything changed? Current characterizations of men, women, and managers.Journal of Applied Psychology, 74 935–942.Google Scholar
  24. Hodson, S., & Pryor, B. (1984). Sex discrimination in the courtroom: Attorney's gender and credibility.Psychological Reports, 55 483–486.Google Scholar
  25. Hoffman, C., & Hurst, N. (1990). Gender stereotypes: Perception or rationalization?Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58 197–208.Google Scholar
  26. Horner, M. S. (1970). Femininity and successful achievement: A basic inconsistency. In J. Bardwick, E. Douvan, M. Horner, & D. Gutmann (Eds.),Feminine personality and conflict. Belmont, CA: Brooks-Cole.Google Scholar
  27. Izraeli, D. N. (1983). Sex effects or structural effects?: An empirical test of Kanter's theory of proportions.Social Forces, 62 153–165.Google Scholar
  28. Jacobs, J. A. (1995). Gender and academic specialties: Trends among recipients of college degrees in the 1980s.Sociology of Education, 68 81–98.Google Scholar
  29. Kanter, R. M. (1977).Men and women of the corporation. New York: Basic.Google Scholar
  30. Kasof, J. (1993). Sex bias in the naming of stimulus persons.Psychological Bulletin, 113 140–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Kelley, K., & Streeter, D. (1992). The roles of gender in organizations. In K. Kelley (Ed.),Issues, theory, and research in Industrial/Organizational Psychology. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers.Google Scholar
  32. Krefting, L. A., Berger, P. K., & Wallace, M. J., Jr. (1978). The contribution of sex distribution, job content, and occupational classification to job sex typing: Two studies.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 13 181–191.Google Scholar
  33. Lifschitz, S. (1983). Male and female careers: Sex-role and occupational stereotypes among high school students.Sex Roles, 9 725–735.Google Scholar
  34. Martin, J., Price, R., Bies, R., & Powers, M. (1987). Now that I can have it, I'm not so sure I want it: The effects of opportunity on aspirations and discontent. In B. Gutek & L. Larwood (Eds.),Women's career development. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  35. Monahan, L., Kuhn, D., & Shaver, P. (1974). Intrapsychic versus cultural explanations of the fear of success motive.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 29 60–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Ott, E. M. (1989). Effects of the male-female ratio at work: Policewomen and male nurses.Psychology of Women Quarterly, 13 41–58.Google Scholar
  37. Pettigrew, T. F., & Martin, J. (1987). Shaping the organizational context for Black American inclusion.Journal of Social Issues, 43 41–78.Google Scholar
  38. Polit, D. F. (1978). Stereotypes relating to family-size status.Journal of Marriage and the Family, 40 105–114.Google Scholar
  39. Reis, P., & Stone, A. J. (Eds.). (1992).American women 1992–93: A status report. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  40. Reskin, B. F., & Hartmann, H. I. (1986).Women's work, men's work: Sex segregation on the job. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  41. Reskin, B. F., & Padavic, I. (1994).Women and men at work. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.Google Scholar
  42. Schachter, S. (1951). Deviation, rejection and communication.Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 46 190–208.Google Scholar
  43. Schein, V. E. (1973). The relationship between sex role stereotypes and requisite management characteristics.Journal of Applied Psychology, 57 95–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Schein, V. E., Mueller, R., & Jacobson, C. (1989). The relationship between sex role stereotypes and requisite management characteristics among college students.Sex Roles, 20 103–110.Google Scholar
  45. Shaffer, D. R., & Johnson, R. D. (1980). Effects of occupational choice and sex role preference on the attractiveness of competent men and women.Journal of Personality, 42 505–519.Google Scholar
  46. Shaffer, D. R., & Wegley, C. (1974). Success orientation and sex role congruence as determinants of the attractiveness of competent women.Journal of Personality, 42 586–600.Google Scholar
  47. Simon, R. J., & Landis, J. M. (1989). The polls — A report: Women's and men's attitudes about a woman's place and role.Public Opinion Quarterly, 53 265–276.Google Scholar
  48. Spence, J. T., & Helmreich, R. (1978).Masculinity and femininity: Their psychological dimensions, correlates, and antecedents. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  49. Spence, J. T., Helmreich, R., & Stapp, J. (1975). Likability, sex-role congruence of interest and competence: It all depends on how you ask.Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 5 93–109.Google Scholar
  50. Taeuber, C. (Ed.). (1991).Statistical handbook on women in America. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press.Google Scholar
  51. Tilby, P. J., & Kalin, R. (1980). Effects of sex-role deviant lifestyles in otherwise normal persons on the perception of maladjustment.Sex Roles, 6 581–592.Google Scholar
  52. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (1990, July).Monthly Labor Review. Washington, DC: Department of Labor.Google Scholar
  53. Ward, N. J. (1991). Occupational suitability bias for full-time and part-time employment in sex-typed jobs.Sex Roles, 25 81–89.Google Scholar
  54. Weiner, B. (1974).Achievement motivation and attribution theory. Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press.Google Scholar
  55. Williams, C. L. (1989).Gender differences at work: Women and men in nontraditional occupations. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  56. Williams, C. L. (1992). The glass escalator: Hidden advantages for men in the “female” professions.Social Problems, 39 253–267.Google Scholar
  57. Yarkin, K. L., Town, J. P., & Wallston, B. S. (1982). Blacks and women must try harder: Stimulus persons' race and sex and attributions of causality.Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 8 21–24.Google Scholar
  58. Yoder, J. D. (1989). Women at West Point: Lessons for women in male-dominated occupations. In J. Freeman (Ed.),Women: A feminist perspective (4th ed.). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.Google Scholar
  59. Yoder, J. D. (1991). Rethinking tokenism: Looking beyond numbers.Gender & Society, 5 178–192.Google Scholar
  60. Yoder, J. D., & Sinnett, L. M. (1985). Is it all in the numbers?: A case study of tokenism.Psychology of Women Quarterly, 9 413–418.Google Scholar
  61. Zimmer, L. (1988). Tokenism and women in the workplace: The limits of gender-neutral theory.Social Problems, 35 64–77.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Janice D. Yoder
    • 1
  • Thomas L. Schleicher
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Wisconsin — MilwaukeeMilwaukeeUSA

Personalised recommendations