Thirty years ago the term gender was borrowed from philology for use in sexological psychology in a paper on hermaphroditism (Money, 1955). As originally defined, gender role consists of both introspective and the extraspective manifestations of the concept. In general usage, the introspective manifestations soon became separately known as gender identity. The acronym, G-I/R, being singular, restores the unity of the concept. Without this unity, gender role has become a socially transmitted acquisition, divorced from the biology of sex and the brain. Sex and gender have been partitioned between body and mind, respectively. The desexualization of gender is in accord with the Zeitgeist of contemporary sexual politics together with victimology and an expanding criminalization of sex. The funding of sexological research is being diverted to victimology, which is, de facto, a branch of law enforcement. Victimologists—and sexological professionals among them—are vulnerable to a backlash of being themselves criminalized. This happens as a result of false accusations of various types of malpractice, including sexual abuse of clients, especially children. Under Hitler, there was an historical parallel when the destruction of sexology was effected by the application of the theory of social eugenics and racial purity which sexologists had endorsed. They were among the first of Hitler's victims.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Money, J. (1952).Hermaphroditism: An Inquiry into the Nature of a Human Paradox. Doctoral Dissertation, Harvard University Library. (University Microfilms Library Services, Xerox Corporation, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106, 1967).
Money, J. (1955). Hermaphroditism, gender and precocity in hyperadrenocorticism: Psychologic findings.Bulletin of The Johns Hopkins Hospital 96: 253–264.
Money, J. (1980).Love and Love Sickness: The Science of Sex, Gender Difference, and Pairbonding. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
Money, J., and Ehrhardt, A. A. (1972).Man and Woman, Boy and Girl: The Differentiation and Dimorphism of Gender Identity from Conception to Maturity. Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore.
Pfäfflin, F. (1985). The connections between eugenics, sterilization and mass murder in Germany 1933–1945.Medicine and Law, in press.
Stoller, R. J. (1964). A contribution to the study of gender identity.The International Journal of Psycho-Analysis 45: 220–226.
Stoller, R. J. (1968).Sex and Gender: On the Development of Masculinity and Femininity. Science House, New York.
Supported by USPH Grant #HD-00325 and Grant #83086900, The William T. Grant, Jr., Foundation.
About this article
Cite this article
Money, J. The conceptual neutering of gender and the criminalization of sex. Arch Sex Behav 14, 279–290 (1985). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01542110