This study tested a prediction derived from the hypothesis that asexual and bisexual transsexualism are actually subtypes of heterosexual transsexualism. Two questionnaire scales measuring erotic attraction to males and females were administered to 163 male-to-female transsexuals. A cluster analysis of their scores divided the subjects into four groups: heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, and asexual. Fisher Exact tests were used to compare the frequency with which subjects in the four clusters reported a history of erotic arousal in association with cross-dressing. As predicted, there were no differences among the asexual, bisexual, and heterosexual transsexuals, and all three groups included a much higher proportion of fetishistic cases than the homosexual group (p ≤.0001, two-tailed). These findings support the view that male transsexuals may be divided into two basic types: heterosexual and homosexual.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
American Psychiatric Association. (1980).Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed.). Author, Washington, D.C.
Bentler, P. M. (1976). A typology of transsexualism: Gender identity theory and data.Arch. Sex. Behav. 5: 567–584.
Blanchard, R. (1985). Research methods for the typological study of gender disorders in males. In Steiner, B. W. (ed.),Gender Dysphoria: Development, Research, Management Plenum Press, New York.
Blanchard, R., Clemmensen, L. H., and Steiner, B. W. (in press). Social desirability response set and systematic distortion in the self-report of adult male gender patients.Arch. Sex. Behav.
Blanchard, R., Racansky, I. G., and Steiner, B. W. (1984). Phallometric detection of cross-gender fetishism in heterosexual male gender dysphorics. Manuscript submitted for publication.
Bubrich, N., and McConaghy, N. (1978). Two clinically discrete syndromes of transsexualism.Brit. J. Psychiat. 133: 73–76.
Buhrich, N., and McConaghy, N. (1979). Three clinically discrete categories of fetishistic transvestism.Arch. Sex. Behav. 8: 151–157.
Crowne, D. P., and Marlowe, D. (1964).The Approval Motive: Studies in Evaluative Dependence. Wiley, New York.
Engelman, L., and Hartigan, J. A. (1981). K-means clustering [BMDP Statistical Software]. University of California Press, Berkeley, California.
Freund, K. (1985). Cross-gender identity in a broader context. In Steiner, B. W. (ed.),Gender Dysphoria: Development, Research, Management Plenum Press, New York.
Freund, K., Steiner, B. W., and Chan, S. (1982). Two types of cross-gender identity.Arch. Sex. Behav. 11: 49–63.
Hirschfeld, M. (1922).Sexualpathologie [Sexual Pathology]. Marcus & Weber, Bonn.
Laub, D. R., and Fisk, N. (1974). A rehabilitation program for gender dysphoria syndrome by surgical sex change.Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 53: 388–403.
Nishisato, S. (1980).Analysis of Categorical Data: Dual Scaling and Its Applications. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.
Person, E., and Ovesey, L. (1974a). The transsexual syndrome in males. I. Primary transsexualism.Amer. J. Psychother. 28: 4–20.
Person, E., and Ovesey, L. (1974b). The transsexual syndrome in males. II. Secondary transsexualism.Amer. J. Psychother. 28: 174–193.
Steiner, B. W., Blanchard, R., and Zucker, K. J. (1985). Introduction. In Steiner, B. W. (ed.),Gender Dysphoria: Development, Research, Management Plenum Press, New York.
Rights and permissions
About this article
Cite this article
Blanchard, R. Typology of male-to-female transsexualism. Arch Sex Behav 14, 247–261 (1985). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01542107
- gender disorders