Archives of Sexual Behavior

, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 49–63

Two types of cross-gender identity

  • Kurt Freund
  • Betty W. Steiner
  • Samuel Chan

DOI: 10.1007/BF01541365

Cite this article as:
Freund, K., Steiner, B.W. & Chan, S. Arch Sex Behav (1982) 11: 49. doi:10.1007/BF01541365


A revision of the typology of male cross-gender identity was carried out by means of formalized, easily replicable methods. The results suggest (1) that there are two discrete types of cross-gender identity, one heterosexual, the other homosexual; (2) that transvestism, and closely related conditions of cross-gender identity, occur exclusively or almost exclusively in heterosexuals; (3) that of the two types of transsexualism distinguished in this study, type A is, in heterosexuals, very rare or completely nonexistent; (4) that (in the course of time) transvestites or borderline transsexuals (defined below) may develop sustained cross-gender identity, as observed by Stoller (1971); (5) that although, according to Hoenig and Kenna (1974), transsexualism by itself is not an anomalous erotic preference, it is (virtually) always either preceded by transvestism or accompanied by homosexuality or cross-gender fetishism.

Key words

cross-gender identity erotic sex preference transvestism transsexualism 

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kurt Freund
    • 1
    • 2
  • Betty W. Steiner
    • 3
    • 4
  • Samuel Chan
    • 5
  1. 1.Research Section of Behavioural SexologyClarke Institute of PsychiatryTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Consulting SexologistOntario Correctional InstituteBramptonCanada
  3. 3.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  4. 4.Gender Identity ClinicClarke Institute of PsychiatryTorontoCanada
  5. 5.Research AssistantClarke Institute of PsychiatryTorontoCanada

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