Journal of Youth and Adolescence

, Volume 21, Issue 6, pp 687–697 | Cite as

Family types and communication with parents: A comparison of youth at different identity levels

  • Ravi Bhushan
  • K. A. Shirali


Recent theory views adolescent behavior as nested in an ongoing system of family relationships. In keeping with this focus, differences in family functioning of high vs. low identity achievement youth were examined and variables to account for differing identity levels were explored. However, the hypothesized relationship (Circumplex Model) between family type and communication was also examined. Subjects were 411 male students, 18–24 years of age, belonging to intact nuclear middle-class homes, who resided with parents in urban areas. Measures used were the Identity Achievement Scale, Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale, and the Parent-Adolescent Communication Scale. Results supported an association between balanced family type and effective communication (p≤.001). Significant differences in the family types were found (p≤.001), with high identity subjects belonging to balanced families, experiencing more openness (p≤.01) and less problems (p≤.01) in communicating with parents. Openness with father, mother, and problems with father emerged as significant discriminants. There are important implications for counselling and therapy with youth, placing family at the center of the psychosocial milieu influencing their development.


Family Functioning Family Type Identity Level Adolescent Behavior Communication Scale 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ravi Bhushan
    • 1
  • K. A. Shirali
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyH. P. UniversityShimla, H. P.India

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