Maintenance of sameness in children with Kanner's syndrome

Abstract

A study is presented with a focus on one of the primary symptoms of early infantile autism. Sameness behavior was examined in a group of 32 psychotic children, 29 boys and 3 girls ranging in age from 3 to 11 years. The group included autistic children diagnosed on the basis of Rimland's Check List E-2. The desire for maintenance of sameness was found to be present to a marked degree in the behavior of all autistic children. The intensity of various forms of such behavior varied considerably within the group, but 10 characteristic manifestations were found to discriminate between autistic and non-autistic children. It is suggested that manifestations of sameness behavior may be related to the level of cognitive development in the child.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Bettelheim, B.The empty fortress. New York: The Free Press, 1967.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Creak, M., Cameron, K., Cowie, V., Ini, D., MacKeith, R., Mitchell, G., O'Gorman, G., Orford, F., Rogers, W., Shapiro, A., Stone, F., Stroh, G., & Yudkin, S. Schizophrenic syndrome in childhood.British Medical Journal, 1961,11, 889–890.

    Google Scholar 

  3. DeMyer, M. K., Barton, S., & Norton, J. A. A comparison of adaptive, verbal, and motor profiles of psychotic and non-psychotic subnormal children.Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 1972,2, 359–377.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Despert, L. Differential diagnosis between obsessive-compulsive neurosis and schizophrenia in children. In P. Hoch & J. Zubin (Eds.),Psychopathology of childhood. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1955.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Ferguson, G. A.Statistical analysis in psychology and education. New York, Toronto, London: McGraw-Hill, 1959.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Frith, U. Studies in pattern detection in normal and autistic children.Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1970,10, 120–135.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Hermelin, B., & O'Connor, N.Psychological experiments with autistic children. London: Pergamon, 1970.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Hutt, S. J., Hutt, C., Lee, D., & Ounsted, C. A. A behavioral and electroencephalographic study of autistic children.Journal of Psychiatric Research, 1965,3, 181–198.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Kanner, L. Autistic disturbances of affective contact.Nervous Child, 1943,2, 217–250.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Kanner, L. Irrelevant and metaphorical language in early infantile autism.American Journal of Psychiatry. 1946,103, 242–246.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Kanner, L.Childhood psychosis: Initial studies and new insights. Washington, D.C.: V. H. Winston & Sons, 1973.

    Google Scholar 

  12. O'Gorman, G.The nature of childhood autism. London: Butterworth, 1967.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Rendle-Short, J., Clancy, H., & Dugdale, A. The diagnosis of infantile autism.Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 1969,11, 432–442.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Rimland, B.Infantile autism. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1964.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Rimland, B. On the objective diagnosis of infantile autism.Acta Paedopsychiatrica, 1968,35, 146–170.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Rimland, B. The differentiation of childhood psychoses: An analysis of checklists for 2, 218 psychotic children.Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 1971,1, 161–174.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Rutter, M. Behavioral and cognitive characteristics. In J. Wing (Ed.),Childhood autism: Clinical educational and social aspects. London: Pergamon, 1966.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Rutter, M. Psychotic disorders in early childhood. In A. J. Coppen & A. Walk (Eds.),Recent developments in schizophrenia: A symposium. R.M.P.A.: London, 1967.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Sucharewa, G. E. Uber den Verlauf der Schizophrenien im Kindesalter.Zeitschrift für die Gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie, 1932,142, 309–321.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Wing, J. K. (Ed.)Early childhood autism: Clinical educational and social aspects. London: Pergamon, 1966.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Wing, L.Autistic children. New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1972.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Wolff, S., & Chess, S. A behavioral study of schizophrenic children.Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavia, 1965,40, 438–466.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Margot Prior.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Prior, M., Macmillan, M.B. Maintenance of sameness in children with Kanner's syndrome. J Autism Dev Disord 3, 154–167 (1973). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01537990

Download citation

Keywords

  • Cognitive Development
  • Autistic Child
  • Primary Symptom
  • Marked Degree
  • Infantile Autism