A study is presented with a focus on one of the primary symptoms of early infantile autism. Sameness behavior was examined in a group of 32 psychotic children, 29 boys and 3 girls ranging in age from 3 to 11 years. The group included autistic children diagnosed on the basis of Rimland's Check List E-2. The desire for maintenance of sameness was found to be present to a marked degree in the behavior of all autistic children. The intensity of various forms of such behavior varied considerably within the group, but 10 characteristic manifestations were found to discriminate between autistic and non-autistic children. It is suggested that manifestations of sameness behavior may be related to the level of cognitive development in the child.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Bettelheim, B.The empty fortress. New York: The Free Press, 1967.
Creak, M., Cameron, K., Cowie, V., Ini, D., MacKeith, R., Mitchell, G., O'Gorman, G., Orford, F., Rogers, W., Shapiro, A., Stone, F., Stroh, G., & Yudkin, S. Schizophrenic syndrome in childhood.British Medical Journal, 1961,11, 889–890.
DeMyer, M. K., Barton, S., & Norton, J. A. A comparison of adaptive, verbal, and motor profiles of psychotic and non-psychotic subnormal children.Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 1972,2, 359–377.
Despert, L. Differential diagnosis between obsessive-compulsive neurosis and schizophrenia in children. In P. Hoch & J. Zubin (Eds.),Psychopathology of childhood. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1955.
Ferguson, G. A.Statistical analysis in psychology and education. New York, Toronto, London: McGraw-Hill, 1959.
Frith, U. Studies in pattern detection in normal and autistic children.Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1970,10, 120–135.
Hermelin, B., & O'Connor, N.Psychological experiments with autistic children. London: Pergamon, 1970.
Hutt, S. J., Hutt, C., Lee, D., & Ounsted, C. A. A behavioral and electroencephalographic study of autistic children.Journal of Psychiatric Research, 1965,3, 181–198.
Kanner, L. Autistic disturbances of affective contact.Nervous Child, 1943,2, 217–250.
Kanner, L. Irrelevant and metaphorical language in early infantile autism.American Journal of Psychiatry. 1946,103, 242–246.
Kanner, L.Childhood psychosis: Initial studies and new insights. Washington, D.C.: V. H. Winston & Sons, 1973.
O'Gorman, G.The nature of childhood autism. London: Butterworth, 1967.
Rendle-Short, J., Clancy, H., & Dugdale, A. The diagnosis of infantile autism.Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 1969,11, 432–442.
Rimland, B.Infantile autism. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1964.
Rimland, B. On the objective diagnosis of infantile autism.Acta Paedopsychiatrica, 1968,35, 146–170.
Rimland, B. The differentiation of childhood psychoses: An analysis of checklists for 2, 218 psychotic children.Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 1971,1, 161–174.
Rutter, M. Behavioral and cognitive characteristics. In J. Wing (Ed.),Childhood autism: Clinical educational and social aspects. London: Pergamon, 1966.
Rutter, M. Psychotic disorders in early childhood. In A. J. Coppen & A. Walk (Eds.),Recent developments in schizophrenia: A symposium. R.M.P.A.: London, 1967.
Sucharewa, G. E. Uber den Verlauf der Schizophrenien im Kindesalter.Zeitschrift für die Gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie, 1932,142, 309–321.
Wing, J. K. (Ed.)Early childhood autism: Clinical educational and social aspects. London: Pergamon, 1966.
Wing, L.Autistic children. New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1972.
Wolff, S., & Chess, S. A behavioral study of schizophrenic children.Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavia, 1965,40, 438–466.
About this article
Cite this article
Prior, M., Macmillan, M.B. Maintenance of sameness in children with Kanner's syndrome. J Autism Dev Disord 3, 154–167 (1973). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01537990
- Cognitive Development
- Autistic Child
- Primary Symptom
- Marked Degree
- Infantile Autism