Autism and pervasive developmental disorders: Concepts and diagnostic issues

  • Michael Rutter
  • Eric Schopler
Article

Abstract

The purpose of this report is to bring up to date available information on the defining features and diagnostic issues relating to autism and related disorders. We review the validity of the syndrome based on our last review (Rutter, 1978; Schopler, 1978). Subsequent data have produced refinement in our understanding of both diagnostic criteria and the nature of the basic deficit. Controversies over both the boundaries and the heterogeneity within the autism syndrome are evaluated according to available evidence. Diagnostic rating instruments for expediting systematic sample selection are critiqued, and leads for new research directions are suggested.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (1980).Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-III) (3rd ed.). Washington, D.C.: Author.Google Scholar
  2. Anwar, F. (1983). The role of sensory modality for the reproduction of shape by the severely retarded.British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 1, 317–328.Google Scholar
  3. August, G. J., & Lockhart, L. H. (1984). Familial autism and the fragile-X chromosome.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 14, 197–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. August, G. J., Raz, N., Papanicolaon, A. C., Baird, T. D., Hirsch, S. L., & Hsu, L. L. (1984). Fenfluramine treatment in infantile autism: Neurochemical, electrophysiological, and behavioral effects.Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 172, 604–612.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. August, G. J., Stewart, M. A., & Tsai, L. (1981). The incidence of cognitive disabilities in the siblings of autistic children.British Journal of Psychiatry, 138, 416–422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Baron-Cohen, S., Leslie, A. M., & Frith, U. (1985). Does the autistic child have a “theory of mind”?Cognition, 21, 37–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bartak, L. (1978). Educational approaches. In M. Rutter & E. Schopler (Eds.),Autism: A reappraisal of concepts and treatment (pp. 423–438). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  8. Bartak, L., & Rutter, M. (1976). Differences between mentally retarded and normally intelligent autistic children.Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 6, 109–120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bartak, L., Rutter, M., & Cox, A. (1975). A comparative study of infantile autism and specific developmental receptive language disorder. I. The children.British Journal of Psychiatry, 126, 127–145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bauman, M., & Kemper, T. L. (1985). Histoanatomic observations of the brain in early infantile autism.Neurology, 35, 866–874.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bender, L. (1947). Childhood schizophrenia. Clinical study of one hundred schizophrenic children.American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 17, 40–56.Google Scholar
  12. Bettelheim, B. (1967).The empty fortress: Infantile autism and the birth of the self. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  13. Birch, H. G., Richardson, S. A., Baird, D., Horobin, G., & Illsley, R. (1970).Mental subnormality in the community: A clinical and epidemiological study. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  14. Blomquist, H. K., Bohman, M., Edvinsson, S. O., Gillberg, C., Gustavson, K-H., Holmgren, G., & Wahlstrom, J. (1984). Frequency of the fragile X syndrome in infantile autism: A Swedish multicenter study.Clinical Genetics, 27, 113–117.Google Scholar
  15. Blomquist, H. K., Gustavson, K-H., Holmgren, G., Nordenson, I., & Palsson-Strae, U. (1983). Fragile X syndrome in mildly mentally retarded children in a northern Swedish county. A prevalence study.Clinical Genetics, 24, 393–399.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Blomquist, H. K., Gustavson, K-H., Holmgren, G., Nordenson, I., & Sweins, A. (1982). Fragile site X-chromosomes and X-linked mental retardation in severely retarded boys in a northern Swedish county. A prevalence study.Clinical Genetics, 21, 209–214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Boullin, D. J., Coleman, M., O'Brien, R. A., & Rimland, B. (1971). Laboratory predictions of infantile autism, based on 5-hydroxytryptamine efflux from blood platelets and their correlation with the Rimland E2 scores.Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 1, 63–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Boullin, D. J., Freeman, B. J., Geller, E., Ritvo, E., Rutter, M., & Yuwiler, A. (1982). Toward the resolution of conflicting findings [Letter to the editor].Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 12, 97–98.Google Scholar
  19. Campbell, M. (1978). Pharmacotherapy. In M. Rutter & E. Schopler (Eds.),Autism: A reappraisal of concepts and treatment (pp. 337–355). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  20. Cantor, S., Evans, J., Pearce, J., & Pezzot-Pearce, T. (1982). Childhood schizophrenia: Present but not accounted for.American Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 758–762.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Cantwell, D., & Baker, L. (1985). Speech and language: Development and disorders. In M. Rutter & L. Hersov (Eds.),Child and adolescent psychiatry: Modern approaches (2nd ed.) (pp. 526–544).lOxford:Blackwell Scientific.Google Scholar
  22. Cantwell, D., Baker, L., Rutter, M., Mawhood, L. (1987).Comparative follow-up study of infantile autism and developmental receptive dysphasia. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  23. Caparulo, B. K., Cohen, D. J., Young, G., Katz, J. D., Shaywitz, S. E., Shaywitz, B. A., & Rothman, S. L. (1981). Computed tomographic brain scanning in children with developmental neuropsychiatric disorders.Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 20, 338–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Chess, S., Fernandez, P., & Korn, S. (1978). Behavioral consequences of congenital rubella.Journal of Pediatrics, 93, 699–703.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Chess, S., Korn, S. J., & Fernandez, P. E. (1971).Psychiatric disorders of children with congenital rubella. New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  26. Chick, J., Waterhouse, L., & Wolff, S. (1979). Psychological construing in schizoid children grown up.British Journal of Psychiatry, 135, 425–430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Coleman, P. D., Romano, J., Lapham, L., & Simon, W. (1985). Cell counts in cerbral cortex of an autistic patient.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 15, 245–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Corbett, J. A. (1976). Medical management. In L. Wing (Ed.),Early childhood autism: Clinical, educational and social aspects (2nd ed.). Oxford: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  29. Corbett, J., Harris, R., Taylor, E., & Trimble, M. (1977). Progressive disintegrative psychosis of childhood.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 18, 211–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Creak, M. (1963). Childhood psychosis: A review of 100 cases.British Journal of Psychiatry, 109, 84–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Curtiss, S. (1977).Genie: A psycholinguistic study of a modern-day “Wild Child.” London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  32. Damasio, H., Maurer, R. G., Damasio, A. R., & Chui, H. C. (1980). Computerized tomographic scan findings in patients with autistic behavior.Archives of Neurology, 37, 504–510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Darby, J. K. (1976). Neuropathologic aspects of psychosis in childhood.Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 6, 339–352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Dawson, G. (1983). Lateralized brain function in autism: Evidence from the Halstead-Reitan neuropsychological battery.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 13, 369–386.Google Scholar
  35. De Sanctis, S. (1906). On some varieties of dementia praecox.Riv. Sper. Freniatr., 32, 141–165. (Translated and reprinted in J. G. Howells (Ed.),Modern perspectives in international child psychiatry. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd, 1969.)Google Scholar
  36. Deykin, E. Y., & MacMahon, D. (1979). The incidence of seizures among children with autistic symptoms.American Journal of Psychiatry, 136, 1310–1312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Deykin, E. Y., & MacMahon, B. (1980). Pregnancy, delivery and neonatal complications among autistic children.American Journal of Diseases of Children, 134, 860–864.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Eggers, C. (1978). Course and prognosis of childhood schizophrenia.Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 8, 21–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Eisenberg, L. (1956). The autistic child in adolescence.American Journal of Psychiatry, 112, 607–612.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Eisenberg, L. (1972). The classification of childhood psychosis reconsidered.Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 2, 338–342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Evans-Jones, L. G., & Rosenbloom, L. (1978). Disintegrative psychosis in childhood.Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 20, 462–470.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Fein, D., Skoff, B., & Mirsky, A. F. (1981). Clinical correlates of brainstem dysfunction in autistic children.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 11, 303–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Ferrari, M., & Matthews, W. S. (1983). Self-recognition deficits in autism: Syndrome-specific or general developmental delay?Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 13, 317–324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Finegan, J., & Quadrington, B. (1979). Pre-, peri-, and neonatal factors and infantile autism.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 20, 119–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Folstein, S., and Rutter, M. (in press). Autism: familial aggregation and genetic implications.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders.Google Scholar
  46. Folstein, S., & Rutter, M. (1977). Infantile autism: A genetic study of 21 twin pairs.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 18, 297–321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Freeman, B. J., Ritvo, E. R., Guthrie, D., Schroth, P., & Ball, J. (1978). The Behavior Observation Scale for Autism: Initial methodology, data analysis, and preliminary findings on 89 children.Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 17, 576–588.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Freeman, B. J., Ritvo, E. R., & Schroth, P. C. (1984). Behavior assessment of the syndrome of autism: Behavior Observation System.Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 23, 588–594.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Frith, U. (1971). Spontaneous patterns produced by autistic, normal and subnormal children. In M. Rutter (Ed.),Infantile autism: Concepts, characteristics and treatment (pp. 113–131). Edinburgh and London: Churchill-Livingston.Google Scholar
  50. Fyffe, C., & Prior, M. R. (1978). Evidence of language recoding in autistic children: A reexamination.British Journal of Psychiatry, 69, 393–403.Google Scholar
  51. Geller, E., Ritvo, E. R., Freeman, B. J., & Yuwiler, A. (1982). Preliminary observations of the effect of fenfluramine on blood serotonin and symptoms in three autistic boys.New England Journal of Medicine, 307, 165–169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Gillberg, C. (1983). Identical triplets with infantile autism and the fragile-X syndrome.British Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 256–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Gillberg, C., & Forsell, C. (1984). Childhood psychosis and neurofibromatosis-More than a coincidence?Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 14, 1–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Gillberg, C., & Gillberg, I. C. (1983). Infantile autism: A total population study of nonoptimal, pre-, peri-, and neonatal conditions.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 13, 153–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Gillberg, C., & Schaumann, H. (1981). Infantile autism and puberty.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 11, 365–371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Gillberg, C., & Svendsen, P. (1983). Childhood psychosis and computed tomographic brain scan findings.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 13, 19–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Goldfine, P. E., McPherson, P. M., Heath, G. A., Hardesty, V. A., Beauregard, L. J., & Gordon, S. (1985). Association of fragile X syndrome with autism.American Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 108–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Green, W. H., Campbell, M., Hardesty, A. S., Grega, D. M., Padron-Gayol, M., Shell, J., & Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L. (1984). A comparison of schizophrenic and autistic children.Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 23, 399–409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Hagberg, B., Aicardi, J., Dias, K., & Ramos, O. (1983). A progressive syndrome of autism, dementia, ataxia, and loss of purposeful hand use in girls: Rett's syndrome: Report of 35 cases.Annals of Neruology, 14, 471–479.Google Scholar
  60. Heller, T. (1930). About dementia infantilis. (Reprinted in J. G. Howells (Ed.),Modern perspectives in international child psychiatry. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd, 1969).Google Scholar
  61. Hemsley, R., Howlin, P., Berger, M., Hersov, L., Holbrook, D., Rutter, M., & Yule, W. (1978). Training autistic children in a family context. In M. Rutter & E. Schopler (Eds.),Autism: A reappraisal of concepts and treatment (pp. 378–411). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  62. Hermelin, B., & O'Connor, N. (1970).Psychological experiments with autistic children. Oxford: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  63. Herold, S., Frackowiak, R. S. J., Rutter, M., & Howlin, P. (in press). Regional cerebral blood flow, oxygen and glucose metabolism in young autistic adults.Journal Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism.Google Scholar
  64. Hobson, R. P. (1983). The autistic child's recognition of age-related features of people, animals and things.British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 4, 343–352.Google Scholar
  65. Hobson, R. P. (1985).The autistic child's appraisal of expressions of emotion: An experimental investigation. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  66. Howells, J. G., & Guirguis, W. R. (1984). Childhood schizophrenia 20 years later.Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 123–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Howlin, P., & Rutter, M. (in press).Autistic children and their families: Approaches to treatment. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  68. James, A. L., & Barry, R. J. (1980). A review of psychophysiology in early onset psychosis.Schizophrenia Bulletin, 6, 506–525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. James, A. L., & Barry, R. J. (1983). Developmental effects in the cerebral lateralization of autistic, retarded, and normal children.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 13, 43–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Kanner, L. (1943). Autistic disturbances of affective contact.Nervous Child, 2, 217–230.Google Scholar
  71. Kanner, L. (1973).Childhood psychosis: Initial studies and new insights. Washington, D.C.: Winston.Google Scholar
  72. Kolvin, I. (1971). Psychoses in childhood—A comparative study. In M. Rutter (Ed.),Infantile autism: Concepts, characteristics and treatment (pp. 7–26). London: Churchill-Livingstone.Google Scholar
  73. Kolvin, I. (1974). Research into childhood psychoses: A crosscultural comparison and commentary.International Journal of Mental Health, 2, 194–212.Google Scholar
  74. Krug, D. A., Arick, J. R., & Almond, P. J. (1980). Behavior checklist for identifying severely handicapped individuals with high levels of autistic behavior.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 21, 221–229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Kydd, R. R., & Werry, J. S. (1982). Schizophrenia in children under 16 years.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 12, 343–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Largo, R. H., & Schinzel, A. (1985). Developmental and behavioural disturbances in 13 boys with fragile X syndrome.European Journal of Pediatrics, 143, 269–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Levitas, A., Hagerman, R. J., Braden, M., Rimland, B., McBog, P., & Matteus, I. (1983). Autism and fragile X syndrome.Journal of Developmental and Behavioural Pediatrics, 3, 151–158.Google Scholar
  78. Lord, C., Schopler, E., & Revick, D. (1982). Sex differences in autism.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 12, 317–330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Lotter, V. (1974). Factors related to outcome in autistic children.Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 4, 263–277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Makita, K. (1974). What is this thing called childhood schizophrenia?International Journal of Mental Health, 2, 179–193.Google Scholar
  81. Malamud, N. (1959). Heller's disease and childhood schizophrenia.American Journal of Psychiatry, 116, 215–218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Maudsley, H. (1867).The physiology and pathology of the mind. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  83. Mrazek, D., & Mrazek, P. (1985). Child maltreatment. In M. Rutter & L. Hersov (Eds.),Child and adolescent psychiatry: Modern approaches (2nd ed., pp. 698–719). Oxford: Blackwell Scientific.Google Scholar
  84. Novic, J., Luchins, D. J., & Perline, R. (1984). Facial affect recognition in schizophrenia: Is there a differential deficit?British Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 533–537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Novick, B., Kurtzberg, D., & Vaughn, H. G. (1979). An electrophysiologic indication of defective informate storage in childhood autism.Psychiatric Research, 1, 101–198.Google Scholar
  86. Ornitz, E. M. (1978). Neurophysiologic studies. In M. Rutter & E. Schopler (Eds.),Autism: A reappraisal of concepts and treatment (pp. 117–139). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  87. Parks, S. L. (1983). The assessment of autistic children: A selective review of available instruments.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 13, 255–267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Paul, R., & Cohen, D. J. (1984). Outcomes of severe disorders of language acquisition.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 14, 405–422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Paul, R., Cohen, D. J., & Caparulo, B. K. (1983). A longitudinal study of patients with severe developmental disorders of language learning.Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 22, 525–534.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Petty, L., Ornitz, E. M., Michelman, J. D., & Zimmerman, E. G. (1984). Autistic children who become schizophrenic.Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 129–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Prior, M. R., Tress, B., Hoffman, W. L., & Boldt, D. (1984). Computed tomographic study of children with classic autism.Archives of Neurology, 41, 482–484.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Pueschel, S. M., Herman, R., & Groden, G. (1985). Brief report: Screening children with autism for fragile-X syndrome and phenylketonuria.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 15, 335–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Richardson, S. A., Koller, H., Katz, M., & McLaren, J. (1980). Seizures and epilepsy in a mentally retarded population over the first 22 years of life.Applied Research in Mental Retardation, 1, 123–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Riikonen, R., & Amnell, G. (1981). Psychiatric disorders in children with earlier infantile spasms.Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 23, 747–760.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Rimland, B. (1971). The differentiation of childhood psychoses: An analysis of checklists for 2,218 psychotic children.Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 1, 161–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Rimland, B. (1984). Diagnostic checklist form E2: A reply to Parks.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 14, 343–345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Ritvo, E. R., Freeman, B. J., Geller, E., & Yuwiler, A. (1983). Effects of fenfluramine on 14 outpatients with the syndrome of autism.Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 22, 549–558.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Ritvo, E. R., Freeman, B. J., Mason-Brothers, A., Mo, A., & Ritvo, A. M. (1985). Concordance for the syndrome of autism in 40 pairs of afflicted twins.American Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 74–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Ritvo, E. R., Spence, M. A., Freeman, B. J., Mason-Brothers, A., Mo, A., & Marazita, M. L. (1985). Evidence for autosomal recessive inheritance in 46 families with multiple incidences of autism.American Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 187–191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Rosenbloom, S., Campbell, M., George, A. E., Kricheff, I., Taleporos, E., Anderson, L., Reuben, R. N., & Korein, J. (1984). High resolution CT scanning in infantile autism: A quantitative approach.Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 23, 72–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Rosenblum, S. M., Arick, J. R., Krug, D. A., Stubbs, E. G., Young, N. B., & Pelson, R. O. (1980). Auditory brainstem-evoked responses in autistic children.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 10, 215–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Rumsey, J. M., Duara, R., Grady, C., Rapoport, J. L., Margolin, R. A., Rapoport, S. I., & Cutler, N. R. (1985). Brain metabolism in autism: Resting cerebral glucose utilization as measured with positron emission tomography (PET).Archives of General Psychiatry, 15, 448–457.Google Scholar
  103. Rumsey, J., Schwartz, M., Creasey, H., Dwana, R., Rapoport, J. L., Rapoport, S. I., & Cutler, N. R. (1983).Quantitative CT-scan findings in autism Unpublished manuscript, American Psychological Association, Arnheim, California, August 26–30.Google Scholar
  104. Ruttenberg, B. A., Dratman, M. L., Fraknoi, J., & Wenar, C. (1966). An instrument for evaluating autistic children.Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 5, 453–478.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Rutter, M. (1970). Autistic children: Infancy to adulthood.Seminars in Psychiatry, 2, 435–450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Rutter, M. (1972). Childhood schizophrenia reconsidered.Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 2, 315–337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Rutter, M. (1974). The development of infantile autism.Psychological Medicine, 4, 147–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Rutter, M. (1978). Diagnosis and definition of childhood autism.Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 8, 139–161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Rutter, M. (1979). Language, cognition and autism. In R. Katzman (Ed.),Congenital and acquired cognitive disorders. New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  110. Rutter, M. (1981).Maternal deprivation reassessed. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin.Google Scholar
  111. Rutter, M. (1983). Cognitive deficits in the pathogenesis of autism.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 24, 513–531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Rutter, M. (1984). Infantile autism. In D. Shaffer, A. Erhardt, & L. Greenhill (Eds.),A clinician's guide to child psychiatry (pp. 48–78). New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  113. Rutter, M. (1985a). Infantile autism and other pervasive developmental disorders. In M. Rutter & L. Hersov (Eds.),Child and adolescent psychiatry: Modern approaches (pp. 545–564). Oxford: Blackwell Scientific.Google Scholar
  114. Rutter, M. (1985b). The treatment of autistic children.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 26, 193–214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Rutter, M., & Garmezy, N. (1983). Developmental psychopathology. In E. M. Hetherington (Ed.),Socialization, personality, and social development, Vol. 4, Mussen's handbook of child psychology (4th ed., pp. 775–911). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  116. Rutter, M., & Gould, M. (1985). Classification. In M. Rutter & L. Hersov (Eds.),Child and adolescent psychiatry: Modern approaches (pp. 304–321). Oxford: Blackwell Scientific.Google Scholar
  117. Schopler, E. (1978). Diagnosis and definition of autism.Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 8, 167–169.Google Scholar
  118. Schopler, E. (1983). New developments in the definition and diagnosis of autism. In B. B. Lahey & A. E. Kazdin (Eds.),Advances in clinical child psychology (Vol. 6, pp. 93–127). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  119. Schopler, E., Mesibov, G., & Baker, A. (1982). Evaluation of treatment for autistic children and their parents.Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 21, 262–267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Schopler, E., Reichler, R. J., DeVellis, R. F., & Daly, K. (1980). Toward objective classification of childhood autism: Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS).Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 10, 91–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Schopler, E., Reichler, R. J., & Renner, B. R. (1985).Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). New York: Irvington.Google Scholar
  122. Schopler, E., & Rutter, M. (1978). Subgroups vary with selection purpose. In M. Rutter & E. Schopler (Eds.),Autism: A reappraisal of concepts and treatment (pp. 507–517). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  123. Scott, D. W. (1985). Asperger's syndrome and non-verbal communications: a pilot study.Psychological Medicine, 15, 683–687.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Skoff, B. F., Mirsky, A. F., & Turner, D. (1980). Prolonged brain-stem transmission time in autism.Psychiatric Research, 2, 157–166.Google Scholar
  125. Skuse, D. (1984). Extreme deprivation in early chilodhood: I. Diverse outcomes for three siblings from an extraordinary family.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 26, 523–541.Google Scholar
  126. Spence, M. A., Ritvo, E. R., Marazita, M. L., Funderburk, S. J., Sparkes, R. S., & Freeman, B. J. (1985). Gene mapping studies with the syndrome of autism.Behavior Genetics, 15, 1–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Spiker, D., & Ricks, M. (1984). Developmental relationships in self-recognition: A study of 52 autistic children.Child Development, 55, 214–225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Taft, L. T., & Cohen, H. J. (1971). Hypsarrhythmia and infantile autism: A clinical report.Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 1, 327–336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Tanguay, P. E. (1984). Toward a new classification of serious psychopathology in children.Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 23, 373–384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Torrey, E. F., Hersh, S. P., & McCabe, K. D. (1975). Early childhood psychosis and bleeding during pregnancy.Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 5, 287–297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Tinbergen, N., & Tinbergen, E. A. (1983). “Autisticchildren”: New hope for a cure. London: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  132. Tsai, L., Stewart, M. A., & August, G. (1981). Implication of sex differences in the familial transmission of infantile autism.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 11, 165–173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Venter, P. A., Hof, J. O., Coetzee, D. J., Van der Walt, C., & Retief, A. E. (1984). No marker (X) syndrome in autistic children.Human Genetics, 67, 107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Walker, E., Bettes, B., & McGuire, M. (1984). Recognition and identification of facial stimuli by schizophrenics and patients with affective disorder.British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 23, 37–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Watson, M. S., Leckman, J. F., Annex, B., Breg, W. R., Boles, D., Volkmar, F. R., Cohen, D. J., & Carter, C. (1984). Fragile X in a survey of 75 autistic males.New England Journal of Medicine, 310, 1462.Google Scholar
  136. Williams, R. S., Hauser, S. L., Purpura, D., Delong, R., & Swisher, C. N. (1980). Autism and mental retardation: Neuropathological studies performed in four retarded persons with autistic behavior.Archives of Neurology, 37, 749–753.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Wing, L. (1981). Language, social, and cognitive impairments in autism and severe mental retardation.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 11, 31–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Wing, L., & Gould, J. (1978). Systematic recording of behaviors and skills of retarded and psychotic children.Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 8, 79–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Wing, L., & Gould, J. (1979). Severe impairments of social interaction and associated abnormalities in children: Epidemiology and classification.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 9, 11–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Wolff, S., & Barlow, A. (1979). Schizoid personality in childhood. A comparative study of schizoid, autistic and normal children.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 20, 19–46.Google Scholar
  141. Wolff, S., & Chick, J. (1980). Schizoid personality in childhood: A controlled follow-up study.Psychological Medicine, 10, 85–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. World Health Organization (1978).International classification of diseases. Geneva: Author.Google Scholar
  143. Yule, W. (1978). Research methodology: What are the “correct controls”? In M. Rutter & E. Schopler (Eds.),Autism: A reappraisal of concepts and treatment (pp. 155–162). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Rutter
    • 1
  • Eric Schopler
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of PsychiatryLondon
  2. 2.University of North Carolina School of MedicineUSA

Personalised recommendations