Learning strategies for making sense out of expository text: The SOI model for guiding three cognitive processes in knowledge construction

Abstract

This article examines learning strategies that promote meaningful learning from expository text as evidenced by problem-solving transfer. The teaching of learning strategies involves decisions concerning what to teach, how to teach, where to teach, and when to teach. The teaching of learning strategies also depends on the teacher's conception of learners as response strengtheners, information processors, or sense makers. Three cognitive processes involved in meaningful learning are selecting relevant information from what is presented, organizing selected information into a coherent representation, and integrating presented information with existing knowledge. Finally, exemplary programs for teaching of learning strategies are presented. The most effective method for teaching students how to make sense out of expository text is for students to participate in selecting, organizing, and integrating information within the context of authentic academic tasks.

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Correspondence to Richard E. Mayer.

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Mayer, R.E. Learning strategies for making sense out of expository text: The SOI model for guiding three cognitive processes in knowledge construction. Educ Psychol Rev 8, 357–371 (1996). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01463939

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Key words

  • learning strategies
  • expository text
  • cognitive processes
  • knowledge construction