Journal of Nonverbal Behavior

, Volume 16, Issue 4, pp 231–247 | Cite as

Children's reliance on situational and vocal expression of emotions: Consistent and conflicting cues

  • Nuran Hortaçsu
  • Birsen Ekinci


The aim of the present study was to investigate developmental differences in reliance on situational versus vocal cues for recognition of emotions. Turkish preschool, second, and fifth grade children participated in the study. Children listened to audiotape recordings of situations between a mother and a child where the emotional cues implied by the context of a vignette and the vocal expression were either consistent or inconsistent. After listening to each vignette, participants were questioned about the content of the incident and were asked to make a judgment about the emotion of the mother referred to in the recording. Angry, happy, and neutral emotions were utilized. Results revealed that 1) recognition of emotions improved with age, and 2) children relied more on the channel depicting either anger or happiness than on the channel depicting neutrality.


Social Psychology Developmental Difference Grade Child Vocal Expression Neutral Emotion 
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Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc. 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nuran Hortaçsu
    • 1
  • Birsen Ekinci
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyMiddle East Technical UniversityAnkaraTurkey

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