Sequential scanning electron microscopy of a growing plant meristem
A two-step replica technique has been developed for sequential study of the epidermal cell pattern of a living plant by scanning electron microscopy. This method is nondestructive, allows periodic high resolution observation of the same developing tissue, and can precede use of any destructive technique, such as transmission electron microscopy. The replicas can be trimmed allowing observation of occluded surfaces, such as the areas between leaves, which are inaccessible in continuousin vivo studies. Here we study the developing leaf primordium ofGraptopetalum and discuss potential uses of the technique.
KeywordsCell patterns Graptopetalum Nondestructive Replica Scanning electron microscopy
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Baird LM, Turano MJ, Webster BD (1988) Ultrastructural and histochemical characteristics of the stigma ofCicer arietinum. Am J Bot 75: 551–557Google Scholar
- Erickson RO, Sax KB (1956) Elemental growth rate of the primary root ofZea mays. Proc Am Phil Soc 100: 487–498Google Scholar
- Gardner JS, Hess WM, Trione EJ (1985) Development of the young wheat spike: A SEM study of Chinese spring wheat. Am J Bot 72: 548–559Google Scholar
- Goodall CR (1983) A statistical analysis of growth in two dimensions. PhD Thesis, Harvard University, Massachusetts, USAGoogle Scholar
- Green PB (1985) Surface of the shoot apex: a reinforcement-field theory for phyllotaxis. J Cell Sci [Suppl] 2: 181–201Google Scholar
- —,Brooks KE (1978) Stem formation from a succulent leaf: Its bearing on theories of axiation. Am J Bot 65: 13–26Google Scholar
- —,Lang JM (1981) Towards a biophysical theory of organogenesis: Birefringence observations on regenerating leaves in succulent,Graptopetalum paraguayense E. Walther. Planta 151: 413–426Google Scholar
- —,Poethig RS (1982) Biophysics of the extension and initiation of plant organs. In:Subtelny S, Green PB (eds) Developmental order: its origin and regulation. AR Riss, New York, pp 485–510Google Scholar
- Owens SJ, Horsfield NJ (1982) A light and electron microscopic study of stigmas inAneilema andCommelina species (Commelinaceae). Protoplasma 112: 26–36Google Scholar
- Williams MH, Vesk M, Mullins MG (1987) Tissue preparation for scanning electron microscopy of fruit surfaces: comparison of fresh and cryopreserved specimens and replicas of banana peel. Micron Microsc Acta 18: 27–31Google Scholar
- — (1988) Development of the banana fruit with special reference to the maturity bronzing disorder. PhD Thesis, The University of Sydney, Australia.Google Scholar