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Civilization, culture, and color: Changing foundations of Robert E. Park's sociology of race relations

  • Stanford M. Lyman
The Enlightenment and Irrationality: Two Essays on Civilization and Modernity
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Social Psychology Race Relation Political Psychology 
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Reference Notes

  1. *.
    Adapted from Stanford M. Lyman,Militarism, Imperialism, and Racial Accommodation: An Analysis and Interpretation of the Early Writings of Robert E. Park (Fayetteville: The University of Arkansas Press, 1991).Google Scholar
  2. 1.
    Robert E. Park, “An Autobiographical Note,” inRace and Culture: The Collected Papers of Robert Ezra Park Vol. I, ed. by Everett Cherrington Hughes, Charles S. Johnson, Jitsuichi Masuoka, Robert Redfield, and Louis Wirth (Glencoe: The Free Press, 1950), p. viii.Google Scholar
  3. 2.
    Robert E.Park, “Our Racial Frontier on the Pacific,”Survey Graphic, LVI:3 (may 1, 1926), pp. 192–196.Google Scholar
  4. 3.
    See Stanford M. Lyman, “The Race Relations Cycle of Robert E. Park,”Pacific Sociological Review, XI:1 (Spring, 1968), pp. 16–22. This essay has been reprinted in Lyman,Civilization: Contents, Discontents, Malcontents, and Other Essays in Social Theory (Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1990), pp. 127–135.Google Scholar
  5. 4.
    Robert E. Park, “The Problem of Cultural Differences,” inRace and Culture: The Collected Papers of Robert Ezra Park; op. cit. Vol. I, ed. by, p. 12.Google Scholar
  6. 5.
    Ibid.;op. cit. Vol. I, ed. by p. 14.Google Scholar
  7. 6.
    The following draws on Robert E. Park: “Racial Assimilation in Secondary Groups with Particular Reference to the Negro,”American Journal of Sociology, XIII:5 (March, 1914), pp. 606–619.Google Scholar
  8. 7.
    Ibid. The following draws on, p. 612.Google Scholar
  9. 8.
    Ibid. The following draws on, p. 613.Google Scholar
  10. 9.
    loc.cit. The following draws onGoogle Scholar
  11. 10.
    loc. cit. The following draws on,Google Scholar
  12. 11.
    Ibid. The following draws on, pp. 615–617.Google Scholar
  13. 12.
    Robert E. Park, “Politics and ‘The Man Farthest Down’,” in Park,Race and Culture, Vol. I, ed. by Everett Cherrington Hughes, Charles S. Johnson, Jitsuichi Masuoka, Robert Redfield, and Louis Wirth (Glencoe: The Free Press, 1950), p. 172.Google Scholar
  14. 13.
    See Emmett J. Scott,Negro Migration During the War. Preliminary Economic Studies of the War, No. 16. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. New York: Oxford University Press, 1920; reprint, New York: Arno Press and the New York Times, 1969), pp. 81–82.Google Scholar
  15. 14.
    See Linda O. McMurry,Recorder of the Black Experience: A Biography of Monroe Nathan Work (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1985), pp. 81–82.Google Scholar
  16. 15.
    See Judith Ann Trolander, “Introduction to the Transaction Edition”, of Robert A. Woods and Albert J. Kennedy,The Settlement Horizon (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 1990 [1992]), pp. xvii-xix.Google Scholar
  17. 16.
    Sheldon Avery,Up From Washington: William Pickens and the Negro Struggle for Equality, 1900–1954 (Newark, Del.: University of Delaware Press, 1989), pp. 15–111.Google Scholar
  18. 17.
    Paul A. Carter,The Decline and Revival of the Social Gospel: Social and Political Liberalism in American Protestant Churches, 1920–1940 (Hamden, Ct.: Archon Books, 1971), pp. 130–133.Google Scholar
  19. 18.
    See Robert E. Park, “Negro Race Consciousness as Reflected in Race Literature,”American Review, I (September–October, 1923), pp. 505–516.Google Scholar
  20. 19.
    Robert E. Park, review of ten books on black American songs, folklore, drama, and poetry inAmerican Journal of Sociology, XXXIII:6 (May, 1928), p. 990.Google Scholar
  21. 20.
    Robert E. Park, in an untitled review essay of six literary, musical, and cultural books inAmerican Journal of Sociology, XXXI (May, 1926), p. 822.Google Scholar
  22. 21.
    Robert E. Park, review ofThe Negro in our History, by Carter G. Woodson andSocial History of the American Negro, by Benjamin Brawley,American Journal of Sociology, XXVIII:5 (March, 1923), p. 614.Google Scholar
  23. 22.
    Park, review essay on ten books on black American songs, folklore, drama, and poetry,op. cit. American Journal of Sociology, XXIII:6, (May, 1928), p. 990.Google Scholar
  24. 23.
    Booker T. Washington with the collaboration of Robert E. Park,The Man Farthest Down: A Record of Observation and Study in Europe (Garden city, N.Y.: Doubleday, Page and Co., 1913).Google Scholar
  25. 24.
    Robert E. Park, Review ofThe Negro from Africa to America, by W. D. Weatherford,American Journal of Sociology, XXXI:2 (September, 1925), p. 259.Google Scholar
  26. 25.
    W. D. Weatherford,The Negro from Africa to America (New York: George H. Doran and Co., 1924).Google Scholar
  27. 26.
    Horace Kallen,Culture and Democracy in the United States: Studies in the Group Psychology of the American Peoples (New York: Boni and Liveright, 1924; reprint, New York: Arno Press and the New York Times, 1970).Google Scholar
  28. 27.
    Park, review ofThe Negro from Africa to America,op. cit. by W. D. Weatherford,, p. 260.Google Scholar
  29. 28.
    Robert E. Park, untitled review essay of seven books on slavery and race relations in the United States, inAmerican Journal of Sociology, XXXII:4 (January, 1927), p. 642.Google Scholar
  30. 29.
    Robert E. Park, “Culture and civilization,” inidem, Race and Culture The Collected Papers of Robert Ezra Park, Vol. I, ed. by Everett Cherrington Hughes, Charles S. Johnson, Jitsuichi Masuoka, Robert Redfield, and Louis Wirth (Glencoe: The Free Press, 1950), p. 16.Google Scholar
  31. 30.
    loc. cit.Robert E. Park, “Culture and civilization,” idem,Race and Culture, The Collected Papers of Robert Ezra Park, Vol. I, ed. by Everett Cherrington Hughes, Charles S. Johnson, Jitsuichi Masuoka, Robert Redfield, and Louis Wirth (Glencoe: The Free Press, 1950)Google Scholar
  32. 31.
    See Marcel Mauss, “A Category of the Human Mind: The Notion of Person, the Notion of ‘Self’,”Sociology and Psychology: Essays, trans. by Ben Brewster (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1979), pp. 57–94; Emile Durkheim and Marcel Mauss,Primitive Classification, trans. and ed. by Rodney Needham (Chicago: University of Chicago Press-Phoenix Books, 1967 [1903]); Emile Durkheim, “Note on Social Morphology,”On Institutional Analysis, trans. and ed. by Mark Traugott (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978), pp. 88–92.Google Scholar
  33. 32.
    Robert E. Park, review ofThe Menace of Colour ..., by J. W. Gregory, inAmerican Journal of Sociology, XXXI:3 (November, 1925), p. 403.Google Scholar
  34. 33.
    Robert E. Park, “Our Racial Frontier on the Pacific,”Survey Graphic, IX (May, 1926), p. 196.Google Scholar
  35. 34.
    , pp. 192–198.Google Scholar
  36. 35.
    , pp. 622.Google Scholar
  37. 36.
    Robert E. Park, review ofHarvard Studies. I. Varia Africana, ed. by Oric Bates, inJournal of Negro History, III:2 (April, 1918), p. 199.Google Scholar
  38. 37.
    Robert E. Park, review ofLes Daimons du Culte Voudo, by Arthur Holly inJournal of Negro History, VII:2 (April, 1922), p. 226.Google Scholar
  39. 38.
    Robert E. Park, review ofLife in a Haitian Valley, by Melville J. Herskovitz inAmerican Journal of Sociology, XLII:2 (September, 1937), pp. 346–348.Google Scholar
  40. 39.
    Robert E. Park, review of ten books on black American songs, folklore, drama, and poetry,op. cit. American Journal of Sociology, XXXIII:6 (May, 1928), p. 989. See also two reviews by Park, review of six books on black American songs, spirituals, poetry and the New Negro, inAmerican Journal of Sociology, XXXI:6 (May, 1926), pp. 821–824; and review ofNegro Americans, What Now? andAlong This Way, both by James Weldon Johnson, inAmerican Journal of Sociology, XL (May, 1935), pp. 837–840.Google Scholar
  41. 40.
    Alain Locke, ed.,The New Negro (New York: Atheneum, 1968 [1925]).Google Scholar
  42. 41.
    Nathan Irvin Huggins, ed.Voices From the Harlem Renaissance (New York: Oxford University Press, 1976).Google Scholar
  43. 42.
    Alain Locke, “The Negro and His Music” inidem, The Negro and His Music and Negro Art: Past and Present (New York: Arno Press and the New York Times, 1969 [1936]), pp. 70–117.Google Scholar
  44. 43.
    Jean Toomer,Cane (New York: Harper and Row, 1969 [1923]).Google Scholar
  45. 44.
    Countee Cullen, “Heritage,” inThe Poetry of the Negro, 1746–1949, ed. by Langston Hughes and Arna Bontemps (Garden city, N.Y.: Doubleday and Co., 1949), pp. 121–125.Google Scholar
  46. 45.
    Harlem Renaissance: Art of Black America, introduction by Mary Schmidt Campbell (New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1987), pp. 105–154.Google Scholar
  47. 46.
    Park, review ofLife in a Haitian Valley, op. cit., by Melville J. Herskovitz inAmerican Journal of Sociology, XLIII:2 (September, 1937), p. 348.Google Scholar
  48. 47.
    Robert E. Park, review ofEuropean Colonial Expansion since 1871, by Mary Evelyn Townsend,American Journal of Sociology, XLVIII:4 (January, 1943), p. 516.Google Scholar
  49. 48.
    Robert E. Park, review ofMobilität der Bevölkerung in den Vereinigten Staaten, by Rudolph Heberle, inAmerican Journal of Sociology, XXXVI:4 (January, 1931), p. 658.Google Scholar
  50. 49.
    Robert E. Park, review of six books on China,American Journal of Sociology, XXXIII:3 (November, 1927), p. 474.Google Scholar
  51. 50.
    Robert E. Park, review ofThe Development of Extraterritoriality in China, by G. W. Keeton,American Journal of Sociology, XXXVII:5 (March, 1932), p. 809.Google Scholar
  52. 51.
  53. 52.
    Ibid., p. 304.Google Scholar
  54. 53.
    Robert E. Park, review of four books on India,American Journal of Sociology, XXXII:2 (September, 1926), p. 303.Google Scholar
  55. 54.
    Ibid., p. 304.Google Scholar
  56. 55.
    Loc.cit., p. 304.Google Scholar
  57. 56.
    Loc.cit., p. 304.Google Scholar
  58. 57.
    Loc.cit., p. 304.Google Scholar
  59. 58.
    Loc.cit., p. 304.Google Scholar
  60. 59.
    Robert E. Park, review of five books on immigration, race, and intelligence,American Journal of Sociology, XXXII:2 (September, 1926), p. 303.Google Scholar
  61. 60.
    Robert E. Park, “Introduction” toInterracial Marriage in Hawaii: A Study of the Mutually Conditioned Processes of Acculturation and Amalgamation, by Romanzo Adams (New York: Macmillan, 1937; reprint, Montclair, N.J.: Patterson Smith, 1969), pp. vii-xiv.Google Scholar
  62. 61.
    Ibid., pp. xii-xiv.Google Scholar
  63. 62.
    Ibid., p. xiii.Google Scholar
  64. 63.
    Robert E. Park, “Racial Ideologies,” inAmerican Society in Wartime, ed. by William Fielding Ogburn (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1943; reprint, New York: Da Capo Press, 1972), p. 183.Google Scholar
  65. 64.
    loc. cit..Google Scholar
  66. 65.
    loc. cit..Google Scholar
  67. 66.
    E. Franklin Frazier, “Ethnic and Minority Groups in Wartime, with Special Reference To the Negro,”American Journal of Sociology, XLVIII (November, 1942), pp. 369–377.Google Scholar
  68. 67.
    Robert Park to Horace Cayton. Quoted in Horace R. Cayton, “Robert Park: A Great Man Died but Leaves Keen Observation on Our Democracy,”Pittsburgh Courier, February 26, 1944. The late Mr. Cayton kindly presented me with a typed copy of his obituary to Park.Google Scholar
  69. 68.
    Robert E. Park, “The Nature of Race Relations,” inRace Relations and the Race Problem: A Symposium on a Growing National and International Problem with Special Reference to the south, ed. by Edgar T. Thompson (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1939), p. 45.Google Scholar
  70. 69.
    Park, “Racial Ideologies,”op. cit..Google Scholar

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© Human Sciences Press, Inc. 1991

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  • Stanford M. Lyman

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