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The voice of the loyal manager: Distinguishing attachment from commitment


The purpose of this article is to use Albert Hirschman's Exit, Voice, and Loyalty framework to analyze the extent to which corporate employees are merely attached to the firm rather than committed. A model of managerial loyalty is developed where loyalty is defined as the percentage pay increase that an employee would require to leave the current firm for alternative employment. Independent variables in the model include barriers to exit and voice. This model was tested on three data sets from North American airlines. This model received empirical support during a stable environment but was not strongly supported during a more turbulent environment. Implications of the results are discussed.

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Cannings, K. The voice of the loyal manager: Distinguishing attachment from commitment. Employ Respons Rights J 5, 261–272 (1992).

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Key words

  • attachment
  • commitment
  • loyalty
  • exit and voice