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Structural analysis of colonies derived from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) protoplasts cultured in liquid and semi-solid media


Colonies have been generated from cotyledon protoplasts of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and transferred to solid regeneration medium. The development of these protoplasts was strikingly dependent on their physical environment (liquid or solidified medium) and the nature of the gelling agent (agarose, alginate). In particular, extremely compact multicellular structures developed in agarose solidified medium, similar to those observed in cultures of hypocotyl- and petiole-derived sunflower protoplasts (termed “proembryoids”). A detailed study at the histological level, however, indicates that these structures are degenerative, rather than embryonic in nature. The quality of the colonies, with regard to their regeneration potential, appears to be best in alginate solidified medium.

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medium of Murashige and Skoog (1962)


1-naphthaleneacetic acid




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Fischer, C., Hahne, G. Structural analysis of colonies derived from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) protoplasts cultured in liquid and semi-solid media. Protoplasma 169, 130–138 (1992).

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  • Helianthus annuus
  • Protoplasts
  • Cotyledons
  • Colonies
  • Agarose
  • Alginate