Differential sensitivities to hypoxia by two anoxia-tolerant marine molluscs: A biochemical analysis
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- de Zwaan, A., Cortesi, P., van den Thillart, G. et al. Mar. Biol. (1991) 111: 343. doi:10.1007/BF01319405
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The metabolic responses to a series of low oxygen tensions were compared for two species of Mediterranaean bivalves,Mytilus galloprovincialis andScapharca inaequivalvis. Whereas both species have well-developed and similar tolerances of anoxia, the metabolic responses ofS. inaequivalvis to low oxygen tensions indicate a substantially greater tolerance of hypoxia. Compared withM. galloprovincialis, the responses ofS. inaequivalvis included the ability to maintain a constant oxygen consumption down to a much lower pO2 value (ca. 1.7 vs 3.4 ppm), and a lower critical pO2 for the recruitment of fermentative pathways of ATP production (ca. 1 vs 3 ppm). Furthermore, a graded increase in the output of anaerobic products (succinate, alanine) occured at oxygen tensions below 3 ppm inM. galloprovincialis and reached a maximum at 1.6 ppm whereas inS. inaequivalvis the net accumulation of anaerobic products at the lowest oxygen tension tested (0.5 ppm) was still substantially less than the level of production output in complete anoxia. This suggests that fermentative pathways are maximally activated at all oxygen tensions below 1.6 ppm inM. galloprovincialis whereas rates of anaerobic pathways are still less than maximum at 0.5 ppm inS. inaequivalvis. These results indicate that in situations of declining oxygen tensions, such as occur due to eutrophication,M. galloprovincialis would not only begin to experience metabolic stress at higher oxygen tensions thanS. inaequivalvis but would experience greater stress at any given pO2. Such differences in hypoxia tolerances may explain the success of the recently introducedS. inaequivalvis in out-competing the nativeM. galloprovincialis in the Adriatic Sea.