, Volume 123, Issue 2, pp 104–115 | Cite as

Cell division in baeocyte producing cyanobacteria

  • Dennis D. Kunkel


An ultrastructural examination of cell division in two baeocyte producing cyanobacteria,Pleurocapsa minor andDermocarpa violaceae, reveals two distinct patterns of binary (transverse) fission. Septate binary fission, inPleurocapsa minor, involves centripetal synthesis and deposition of the mucopolymer cell wall layer (L 2). The ingrowth of the cytoplasmic membrane and L 1 cell wall layer, along with the synthesis of the L 2 cell wall layer, results in the formation of a prominent septum. Partitioning of the cell occurs by the constriction of the outer cell wall layers (L 3 and L 4) through the septum. InDermocarpa violaceae, constrictive binary fission occurs by the simultaneous ingrowth or constriction of the cytoplasmic membrane and all cell wall layers (L1, L2, L3, L4). Septate and constrictive binary fission may proceed symmetrically (medially) or asymmetrically (nonmedially). Multiple fission occurs regularly inDermocarpa violaceae and provides for a rapid means of reproduction when compared to binary fission. Successive radial and tangential divisions of the protoplast result in formation of many small daughter cells (baeocytes). The process of multiple fission is similar to septate binary fission with reduced septa being formed. However, constriction of the outer cell wall layers, through the septa, proceeds concurrently with septum formation.


Constrictive binary fission Cyanobacteria Development Multiple fission Septate binary fission Ultrastructure 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allen, M. M., 1968: Ultrastructure of the cell wall and cell division of unicellular blue-green algae. J. Bact.96, 842–852.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. —,Stanier, R. Y., 1968: Growth and division of some unicellular blue-green algae. J. gen. Microbiol.51, 199–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Balkwill, D. L., Stevens, S. E., Jr., 1980: Glycocalyx ofAgmenellum quadruplicatum. Arch. Microbiol.128, 8–11.Google Scholar
  4. Beck, S., 1963: Licht- und elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen an einer sporenbildenden Cyanophycee aus dem Formenkreis vonPleurocapsa fuliginosa. Hauck. Flora allg. bot. Ztg.153, 194–216.Google Scholar
  5. Beveridge, T. J., 1980: Cell division inSporosarcina ureae. Can. J. Microbiol.26, 235–242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Butler, R. D., Allsopp, A., 1972: Ultrastructural investigations in theStigonemataceae (Cyanophyta). Arch. Mikrobiol.82, 283–299.Google Scholar
  7. Castenholz, R. W., 1970: Laboratory culture of thermopholic cyanophytes. Schweizerische Z. Hydrologie32, 538–551.Google Scholar
  8. Costerton, J. W. F., Murray, R. G. E., Robinow, C. F., 1961: Observations on the motility and structure ofVitreoscilla. Can. J. Microbiol.7, 329–339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. —,Ingram, J. M., Cheng, K. J., 1974: Cell envelope of gramnegative bacteria. Bacteriol. Rev.38, 87–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Drews, G., Giesbrecht, P., 1971: Die Bauelemente der Bakterien und Blaualgen. In: Die Zelle (Metzner, H., ed.), pp. 407–467. Stuttgart: Wiss. Verlagsgesellschaft.Google Scholar
  11. Echlin, P., 1963: The fine structure of the cell boundary of the bluegreen algaAnacystis montana. J. Cell Biol.17, 212–215.Google Scholar
  12. —, 1964: The fine structure of the blue-green algaAnacystis montana f.minor grown in continuous illumination. Protoplasma58, 439–457.Google Scholar
  13. —,Morris, I., 1965: The relationship between blue-green algae and bacteria. Biol. Rev.40, 143–187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Eykelenburg, C., van, 1977: On the morphology and ultrastructure of the cell wall ofSpirulina platensis. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek43, 89–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Frank, H., Lefort, M., Martin, H. H., 1962: Elektronenoptische und chemische Untersuchungen an Zellwänden der BlaualgePhormidium uncinatum. Z. Naturf.17, 262–268.Google Scholar
  16. Gardner, N. L., 1906: Cytological studies inCyanophyceae. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot.2, 237–296.Google Scholar
  17. Gilleland, H. E., Jr., Murray, R. E., 1975: Demonstration of cell division by septation in a variety of Gram-negative rods. J. Bact.121, 721–725.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Golecki, J. R., 1977: Studies on ultrastructure and composition of cell walls of the cyanobacteriumAnacystis nidulans. Arch. Microbiol.114, 35–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. —,Drews, G., 1974: Zur Struktur der Blaualgen-ZellwandGefrierätzuntersuchungen und extrahierten Zellwände vonAnabaena variabilis. Cytobiologie8, 213–227.Google Scholar
  20. Ingram, L. O., Thurston, E. L., 1970: Cell division in morphological mutants ofAgmenellum quadruplicatum strain BG-1. Protoplasma71, 55–75.Google Scholar
  21. —,Fisher, W. D., 1973: Novel mutant impaired in cell division: Evidence of positive regulating factor. J. Bact.113, 999–1005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Jensen, T. E., Sicko, L. M., 1971: The effect of lysozyme on the cell wall morphology in a blue-green alga,Cylindrospermum sp. Can. J. Microbiol.68, 71–75.Google Scholar
  23. — —, 1972: The fine structure of the cell wall ofGleocapsa alpicola, a blue-green alga. Cytobiologie6, 439–446.Google Scholar
  24. Jost, M., 1965: Die Ultrastruktur vonOscillatoria rubescens D. C. Arch. Mikrobiol.50, 211–245.Google Scholar
  25. Kamat, N. D., 1962: Two new species ofChroococcidiopsis from India. Hydrobiologia20, 188–192.Google Scholar
  26. Komarek, J., 1972: Reproduction process and taxonomy of unicellular endosporine blue-green algae, pp.41–47. Proc. Symp. Taxon. Biol. Blue-Green Algae: Madras.Google Scholar
  27. —,Ludvik, J., Pokorny, V., 1975: Cell structure and endospore formation in the blue-green algaChroococcidiopsis. Arch. Hydrobiol. Suppl. 46. Algological Studies12, 205–223.Google Scholar
  28. Kunkel, D. D., 1980: Cellular ultrastructure, fission and baeocyte development in two sporulating blue-green algae,Dermocarpa violaceae Crouan andPleurocapsa minor Hansgirg. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington. Diss. Abst.41, 3991 B.Google Scholar
  29. Lamont, H. C., 1969: Shear-oriented microfibrils in the mucilaginous investments of two motile Oscillatoriacean blue-green algae. J. Bact.97, 350–361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Leak, L. V., 1967: Fine structure of the mucilaginous sheath ofAnabaena sp. J. Ultrastruct. Res.21, 61–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. MacRae, T. H., McCurdy, H. D., 1975: Ultrastructural studies ofChondromyces crocatus vegetative cells. Can. J. Microbiol.21, 1815–1826.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Matsuhashi, M., Furuyama, M., Maruo, B., 1969: Penicillinsensitive D-alanine carboxypeptidase inAnabaena variabilis, a blue-green alga. Biochim. biophys. Acta184, 670–671.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Pankratz, H. S., Bowen, C. C., 1963: Cytology of blue-green algae. I. The cells ofSymploca muscorum. Am. J. Bot.50, 387–399.Google Scholar
  34. Pascher, A., 1929: Über die Teilungsvorgänge bei einer neuen Blaualge:Endonema. Jb. wiss. Bot.70, 329–347.Google Scholar
  35. Provosoli, L., 1968: Media and prospects for the cultivation of marine algae. In: Cultures and collection of algae (Watanabe, A.,Hattori, A., eds.), pp. 63–75. Proc. US-Japan Conf.: Hakone (Sept. 1966) Jap. Soc. Plant. Physiol.Google Scholar
  36. —,Mclaughlin, J. J. A., Droop, M. R., 1957: The development of artificial media for marine algae. Arch. Mikrobiol.25, 392–428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Sicko-Goad, L., Jensen, T. E., 1981: Fine structure of the cell wall of the cyanobacteriumMicrocoleus vaginatus (Vauch) Gomont. Cytobios.30, 19–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Starr, R. C., 1966: The culture collection of algae at Indiana University. Am. J. Bot.51, 1013–1044.Google Scholar
  39. —, 1971: The culture collection of algae at Indiana University additions to the collection July 1966–July 1971. J. Phycol.7, 350–362.Google Scholar
  40. Steed, P., Murray, R. G. E., 1966: The cell wall and cell division of Gram-negative bacteria. Can. J. Microbiol.12, 263–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Tiwari, G. L., 1972: On the morphology and life-history of a new species ofChroococcidiopsis Geitler (Chroococcales). Hydrobiologia40, 177–182.Google Scholar
  42. Thurston, E. L., Ingram, L. O., 1971: Morphology and fine structure ofFischerella ambigua. J. Phycol.7, 203–210.Google Scholar
  43. Varma, A. K., Mitra, A. K., 1962: On the life-history and mode of perennation ofMyxosarcina spectabilis Geitler and Ruttner var.decolorata n. var. Nova Hedwigia IV (3/4), 351–358.Google Scholar
  44. Waterbury, J. B., Stanier, R. Y., 1978: Patterns of growth and development in pleurocapsalean cyanobacteria. Microbiol. Rev.42, 2–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Weibe, W. J., Chapman, G. B., 1968: Fine structure of selected marine pseudomonads and achromobacters. J. Bact.95, 1862–1873.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. West, J. A., 1966: The life histories of several marineBangiophycidae andFlorideophycidae (Rhodophyta, Rhodophyceae) in laboratory culture. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Washington, Seattle,Washington, pp. 26–27. Diss. Abst.27, 4263 B.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dennis D. Kunkel
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BotanyUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations