Skip to main content
Log in

Interspecific variations in attachment sites and density assessment in femaleIxodes rubicundus (Acari: Ixodidae) on domestic and natural hosts

  • Published:
Experimental & Applied Acarology Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

The attachment sites of female Karoo paralysis ticks (Ixodes rubicundus) and equations to assess tick burdens on domestic (sheep and goats) and natural (mountain reedbuck) hosts were determined. No intraspecific differences in attachment sites for Merino sheep and Angora goats could be observed, but interspecific differences were evident.Ixodes rubicundus in general attaches on the ventral aspects of the host. More than 50% of these ticks attached to the fron quarters of the body of the domestic host, and 60% to the hindquarters of the natural host. The length of Merino sheep wool had no affect on either the attachment site or number of attached ticks. In general, more ticks were found attached to the woollen than non-woollen body areas. Equations are provided which can estimate tick burdens on hosts by counting the ticks on two or three selected body areas of the host. To facilitate sampling procedures, approximate sample sizes for the various hosts needed to estimate average tick burdens have been provided. Depending on the level of precision required (with bounds on the error of estimation equal to 1, 2 or 5 ticks), the number of animals in a flock of 200 Angora goats that must be examined varied from 26 to 85.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Andrews, R.H. and Petney, T.N., 1981. Competition for sites of attachment to hosts in three parapatric species of reptile tick. Oecologia, (Berl.), 51: 227–232.

    Google Scholar 

  • Andrews, R.H., Petney, T.N. and Bull, C.M., 1982. Niche changes between parasite populations: An example from ticks on reptiles. Oecologia (Berl.) 55: 77–80.

    Google Scholar 

  • Balashov, Yu.S., 1972. Bloodsucking ticks (Ixodoidea) — Vectors of Diseases of Man and Animals. Misc. Publ. Entomol. Soc. Am., 8 (5): 376 pp.

  • Barnard, D.R. and Morrison, R.D., 1985. Density estimators for populations of the Lone Star tick,Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae), on pastured beef cattle. J. Med. Entomol., 22: 244–249.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Barnard, D.R., Morrison, R.D. and Ervin, R.T., 1989. Sites of attachment and density assessment inAmblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) on nursing beef calves. Exp. Appl. Acarol., 6: 245–252.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bloemer, S.R., Zimmerman, R.H. and Fairbanks, K., 1988. Abundance, attachment sites, and density estimators of Lone Star ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting White-tailed deer. J. Med. Entomol., 25: 295–300.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • De Jager, C., 1988. Water- en energieverhoudings by die Karooverlammingsbosluis,Ixodes rubicundus Neumann, 1904 (Acari: Ixodidae). M.Sc. Thesis, University of the Orange Free State, South Africa, 171 pp. (unpubl.).

    Google Scholar 

  • Evans, G.O., 1952. The distribution ofIxodes ricinus (L.) on the body of cattle and sheep. Bull. Entomol. Res., 41: 709–723.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fourie, L.J. and Horak, I.G., 1987. Tick-induced paralysis of springbok. S. Afr. J. Wildl. Res., 17: 131–133.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fourie, L.J. and Vrahimis, S., 1989. Tick-induced paralysis and mortality of gemsbok. S. Afr. J. Wildl. Res., 19: 118–121.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fourie, L.J., De Jager, T. and Petney, T.N., 1988a. Prolonged or repeated copulation and male longevity in the tickIxodes rubicundus. J. Parasitol. 74: 609–612.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Fourie, L.J., Horak, I.G., and Marais, L., 1988b. The seasonal abundance of adult ixodid ticks on Merino sheep in the south-western Orange Free State. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc., 59: 191–194.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Fourie, L.J., Petney, T.N., Horak, I.G., and De Jager, C., 1989. Seasonal incidence of Karoo paralysis in relation to the infestation density of femaleIxodes rubicundus. Vet. Parasitol., 33: 319–328.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Fourie, L.J., Kok, O.B. and Van Zyl, J.M., 1991. Spatial distribution of the Karoo paralysis tickIxodes rubicundus (Acari: Ixodidae) within a false upper Karoo veld type.Exp. Appl. Acarol., 11: 37–49.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Horak, I.G., Moolman, G., and Fourie, L.J., 1987. Some wild hosts of the Karoo paralysis tickIxodes rubicundus Neumann, 1904 (Acari: Ixodidae). Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res., 54: 49–51.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Howell, C.J., Walker, J.B. and Nevill, E.M., 1983. Ticks, mites and insects infesting domestic animals in South Africa. Part 1. Descriptions and biology. Sci. Bull. Dep. Agric. Water Supply Repub. S. Afr., 393: 71 pp.

  • Ott, L., 1977. An Introduction to Statistical Methods and Data Analysis. Duxbury Press, North Scituate, Massachusetts, 730 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Petney, T.N. and Al-Yaman, F., 1985. Attachment sites of the tortoise tickHyalomma aegyptium in relation to tick density and physical condition of the host. J. parasitol., 71: 287–289.

    Google Scholar 

  • Petney, T.N. and Fourie, L.J., 1990. The dispersion of the Karoo Paralysis Tick,Ixodes rubicundus, within a naturally infested population of sheep in South Africa. Vet. Parasitol., 34: 345–352.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Petney, T.N., Van Ark, H. and Spickett, A.M., 1990. On sampling tick populations: The problem of overdispersion. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res., 57: 123–127.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Spickett, A.M. and Heyne, H., 1988. A survey of Karoo tick paralysis in South Africa. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res., 55: 89–92.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Stampa, S., 1959. Tick paralysis in the Karoo areas of South Africa. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res., 28: 170–227.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wilkinson, P.R., 1972. Sites of attachment of ‘Prairie’ and ‘Montane’Dermacentor andersoni (Acarina: Ixodidae) on cattle. J. Med. Entomol., 9: 133–137.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Wilkinson, P.R., 1985. Differences in paralyzing ability and sites of attachment to cattle of Rocky Mountain Wood ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from three regions of western Canda. J. Med. Entomol., 22: 28–31.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Fourie, L.J., van Zyl, J.M. Interspecific variations in attachment sites and density assessment in femaleIxodes rubicundus (Acari: Ixodidae) on domestic and natural hosts. Exp Appl Acarol 13, 1–10 (1991). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01268934

Download citation

  • Accepted:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01268934

Keywords

Navigation