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Qualitas Plantarum

, Volume 26, Issue 1–3, pp 227–243 | Cite as

Natural toxicants in selected leguminous seeds with special reference to their metabolism and behaviour on cooking and processing

  • M. Stein
Article

Abstract

A brief survey is presented of the most relevant heat labile and heat stable natural toxicants found in syobean and dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Investigators, aided by rapid development of biochemical instrumentation and techniques, have concentrated upon the elucidation of the chemistry of proteinaceous protease inhibitors and glycoproteins with lectin character. It appears that the low M.W protease inhibitor (abt. 10000) in raw legume meal is in part responsible for the pancreatic hypertrophy observed in rats and chicks fed raw legume meal as the principal source of dietary protein, whilst the large M.W. lectin (abt. 100000) from raw navy bean has been found to be lethal to conventional but not to germfree quail. No real explanation has been advanced for the poor growth observed when these small animals feed on protein from raw legumes.

The convential temperatures and heating times used to inactivate these inhibitors are discussed. There is a lack of scientific information as to the low levels of inhibitors or toxicants that would be tolerated in heated legumes and the heattreatment required to achieve acceptable low levels of toxicants commensurate with the achievement of optimum palatability and preservation of the maximum nutritional value of the legume protein.

Keywords

Heat Time Heat Labile Real Explanation Legume Protein Navy Bean 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Zusammenfassung

Ein kurzer Ueberblick wird gegeben über die relevantesten Hitze-labilen und Hitzebeständigen natürlichen Giftstoffe in Soja und Trockenbohnen (Phaseolus vulgaris). Forscher, gefördert durch die rapide Entwicklung der biochemischen Apparatetechnik, hatten sich um die Aufklärung des Chemismus der eiweissartigen Protease-Inhibitoren und der Glykoproteine mit Lektin-Charakter bemüht. Der niedermolekular wichtige (ung. 10.000) Protease-Inhibitor erscheint zum Teil für die pankreatische Hypertrophie verantwortlich zu sein, die man in Ratten und Kücken beobachtete, die mit ungekochten Hülsenfrüchtpulver als Haupteiweiß verfüttert wurden. Das hochmolekulare Lektin (ung. 100.000) aus Gartenbohnen war lethal für konventionelle aber nicht Keimfreie Wachteln. Es gibt noch keine vollkommene Erklärung für das schlechte Wachstum, wenn an Kleintiere Eiweiß ungekochter Leguminosen verfüttert wurden.

Die üblichen Temperaturen und Erhitzungszeiten zur Inaktivierung dieser Inhibitoren wird diskutiert. Es gibt noch nicht genügend wissenschaftliche Informationen über die niedrigsten Konzentrationen von Inhibitoren und toxischen Stoffen, die in erhitzten Leguminosen toleriert werden können sowie über die Wärmebedingen, die erforderlich sind, um akzeptierbare niedrige Konzentrationen an toxischen Substanzen zusammen mit optimalem Geschmack und Erhaltung eines maximalen Nährwertes des Leguminosen Eiweißes zu erreichen.

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Copyright information

© Dr. W. Junk b.v. Publishers 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Stein
    • 1
  1. 1.Food Science Laboratories, Department of Applied Biochemistry and NutritionUniversity of NottinghamNottinghamEngland

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