Evidence for developmentally based diagnoses of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder

Abstract

This paper compares the validity of DSM-III-R diagnoses of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) and an alternative option which is subdivided into three levels according to developmental sequence and severity: modified oppositional disorder (MODD), intermediate CD (ICD), and advanced CD (ACD). Using a sample of 177 boys followed over 3 years, both the DSM-III-R and the alternative diagnostic constructs are evaluated on three criteria: symptom discriminative validity, and diagnostic external and predictive validity. Most DSM-III-R ODD and CD symptoms discriminated between ODD and CD, but exceptions are noted. Additional analyses demonstrated considerable overlap among DSM-III-R oppositional symptoms. The majority of the symptoms proposed for the alternative option could be assigned to a specific level based on acceptable symptom discrimination. External validity lent support to the distinctions between DSM-III-R ODD and CD, and between MODD, ICD, and ACD. MODD was a better predictor than ODD of which boys received a later diagnosis of CD. Suggestions are made for the inclusion and exclusion of symptoms for developmentally based diagnoses of oppositional and conduct disorders.

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Correspondence to Rolf Loeber Ph.D..

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This research was supported by a grant from the John D. and Catherine R. MacArthur Foundation to the American Psychiatric Association, and grant 1-RO1-MH42529-04 from the National Institute of Mental Health. The authors are indebted to Paul Frick for his advice with some of the statistical analyses, and particularly to Ms. Judith Navratil for her expert help in data collection.

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Loeber, R., Keenan, K., Lahey, B.B. et al. Evidence for developmentally based diagnoses of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. J Abnorm Child Psychol 21, 377–410 (1993). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01261600

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Keywords

  • Good Predictor
  • External Validity
  • Additional Analysis
  • Conduct Disorder
  • Discriminative Validity