The mineral surface of Wyoming bentonite was modified by replacing inorganic ions with four quaternary ammonium cations in an amount equal to 40 percent of the cation-exchange capacity of the bentonite. The four quaternary ammonium cations used were tetramethylammonium (TMA), tetraethylammonium (TEA), benzyltrimethylammonium (BTMA), and benzyltriethylammonium (BTEA). Sorption of benzene, tetrachloromethane, trichloroethene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, and naphthalene to the modified sorbents from water at 20 °C was investigated. All five solutes were sorbed strongly by TEA-, BTMA-, and BTEA-bentonite, but only benzene and tetrachloromethane were strongly sorbed by TMA-bentonite. The sorption isotherms are distinctly nonlinear and the magnitude of sorption is not correlated with the solute's aqueous solubility. In contrast, sorption of trichloroethene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, and naphthalene to TMA-bentonite was negligible relative to benzene and tetrachloromethane sorption. The apparent absence of solute selectivity by TEA-, BTMA-, and BTEA-bentonite, along with their large sorption capacities, indicates that these sorbents can potentially be useful as components of landfill liners or slurry walls to decrease the mobility of a variety of nonionic organic contaminants.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Adamson, J. W.: 1990,Physical Chemistry of Surfaces, 5th Ed., Wiley, New York.
Alther, G. R., Evans, J. C., and Pancoski, S. E.: 1988, Organically modified clays for stabilization of organic hazardous wastes,' inSuperfund '88 — Proceedings of the 9th National Conference, Washington, D. C., p. 440.
Brownawell, B. J., Chen, H., Collier, J. M., and Westall, J. C.: 1990,Environ. Sci. Technol. 24, 1234.
Cadena, F.: 1989,J. Environ. Engineering. 115, 756.
Chiou, C. T., Peters, L. J., and Freed, V. H.: 1981a,Science 213, 684.
Chiou, C. T., Schmedding, D. W., and Block, J. H.: 1981b,J. Pharm. Sci. 70, 1176.
Chiou, C. T. and Shoup, T. D.: 1985a,Environ. Sci. Technol. 19, 1196.
Chiou, C. T., Shoup, T. D., and Porter, P. E.: 1985b,Organ. Geochem. 8, 9.
Evans, J. C., Sambasivam, Y., and Zarlinski, S.: 1990, Attenuating materials in composite liners', in R. Bonaparte (ed.),Waste Containment Systems: Construction, Regulation, and Performance, New York, NY, American Society of Civil Engineers, p. 246.
Harper, M. and Purnell, C. J.: 1990,Environ. Sci. Technol. 24, 55.
Lee, J. F., Mortland, M. M., Boyd, S. A., and Chiou, C. T.: 1989,J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. I. 85, 2953.
Lee, J. F., Mortland, M. M., Chiou, C. T., Kile, D. E., Boyd, S. A.: 1990,Clays Clay Miner. 38, 113.
Neel, D. and Bowman, R. S.: 1991, Sorption of organics to surface-altered zeolites,' inProceedings of the 36th Annual New Mexico Water Conference, Las Cruces, NM.
Smith, J. A., Jaffé, P. R., and Chiou, C. T.: 1990,Environ. Sci. Technol. 24, 1167.
Smith, J. A., Jaffé, P. R.: 1991,Environ. Sci. Technol. 25, 2054.
Smith, J. A., Franklin, P. M., and Jaffé, P. R.: 1992, Hydraulic Conductivity of Landfill Liners Containing Benzyltriethylammonium-Bentonite,' inWater Forum '92 — Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Baltimore, MD, p. 186–191.
Smith, J. A., Witkowski, P. J., and Chiou, C. T.: 1988a,Rev. Environ. Contamin. Toxicol. 103, 127.
Smith, J. A., Witkowski, P. J., and Fusillo, T. V.: 1988b, Mammade Organic Compounds in the Surface Waters of the United States: A Review of Current Understanding,'U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1007, 92 p.
About this article
Cite this article
Smith, J.A., Jaffé, P.R. Adsorptive selectivity of organic-cation-modified bentonite for nonionic organic contaminants. Water Air Soil Pollut 72, 205–211 (1994). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01257125