Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

, Volume 72, Issue 1–4, pp 205–211 | Cite as

Adsorptive selectivity of organic-cation-modified bentonite for nonionic organic contaminants

  • James A. Smith
  • Peter R. Jaffé
Article

Abstract

The mineral surface of Wyoming bentonite was modified by replacing inorganic ions with four quaternary ammonium cations in an amount equal to 40 percent of the cation-exchange capacity of the bentonite. The four quaternary ammonium cations used were tetramethylammonium (TMA), tetraethylammonium (TEA), benzyltrimethylammonium (BTMA), and benzyltriethylammonium (BTEA). Sorption of benzene, tetrachloromethane, trichloroethene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, and naphthalene to the modified sorbents from water at 20 °C was investigated. All five solutes were sorbed strongly by TEA-, BTMA-, and BTEA-bentonite, but only benzene and tetrachloromethane were strongly sorbed by TMA-bentonite. The sorption isotherms are distinctly nonlinear and the magnitude of sorption is not correlated with the solute's aqueous solubility. In contrast, sorption of trichloroethene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, and naphthalene to TMA-bentonite was negligible relative to benzene and tetrachloromethane sorption. The apparent absence of solute selectivity by TEA-, BTMA-, and BTEA-bentonite, along with their large sorption capacities, indicates that these sorbents can potentially be useful as components of landfill liners or slurry walls to decrease the mobility of a variety of nonionic organic contaminants.

Keywords

Bentonite Naphthalene Sorb Sorption Isotherm Trichloroethene 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adamson, J. W.: 1990,Physical Chemistry of Surfaces, 5th Ed., Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Alther, G. R., Evans, J. C., and Pancoski, S. E.: 1988, Organically modified clays for stabilization of organic hazardous wastes,' inSuperfund '88 — Proceedings of the 9th National Conference, Washington, D. C., p. 440.Google Scholar
  3. Brownawell, B. J., Chen, H., Collier, J. M., and Westall, J. C.: 1990,Environ. Sci. Technol. 24, 1234.Google Scholar
  4. Cadena, F.: 1989,J. Environ. Engineering. 115, 756.Google Scholar
  5. Chiou, C. T., Peters, L. J., and Freed, V. H.: 1981a,Science 213, 684.Google Scholar
  6. Chiou, C. T., Schmedding, D. W., and Block, J. H.: 1981b,J. Pharm. Sci. 70, 1176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Chiou, C. T. and Shoup, T. D.: 1985a,Environ. Sci. Technol. 19, 1196.Google Scholar
  8. Chiou, C. T., Shoup, T. D., and Porter, P. E.: 1985b,Organ. Geochem. 8, 9.Google Scholar
  9. Evans, J. C., Sambasivam, Y., and Zarlinski, S.: 1990, Attenuating materials in composite liners', in R. Bonaparte (ed.),Waste Containment Systems: Construction, Regulation, and Performance, New York, NY, American Society of Civil Engineers, p. 246.Google Scholar
  10. Harper, M. and Purnell, C. J.: 1990,Environ. Sci. Technol. 24, 55.Google Scholar
  11. Lee, J. F., Mortland, M. M., Boyd, S. A., and Chiou, C. T.: 1989,J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. I. 85, 2953.Google Scholar
  12. Lee, J. F., Mortland, M. M., Chiou, C. T., Kile, D. E., Boyd, S. A.: 1990,Clays Clay Miner. 38, 113.Google Scholar
  13. Neel, D. and Bowman, R. S.: 1991, Sorption of organics to surface-altered zeolites,' inProceedings of the 36th Annual New Mexico Water Conference, Las Cruces, NM.Google Scholar
  14. Smith, J. A., Jaffé, P. R., and Chiou, C. T.: 1990,Environ. Sci. Technol. 24, 1167.Google Scholar
  15. Smith, J. A., Jaffé, P. R.: 1991,Environ. Sci. Technol. 25, 2054.Google Scholar
  16. Smith, J. A., Franklin, P. M., and Jaffé, P. R.: 1992, Hydraulic Conductivity of Landfill Liners Containing Benzyltriethylammonium-Bentonite,' inWater Forum '92 — Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Baltimore, MD, p. 186–191.Google Scholar
  17. Smith, J. A., Witkowski, P. J., and Chiou, C. T.: 1988a,Rev. Environ. Contamin. Toxicol. 103, 127.Google Scholar
  18. Smith, J. A., Witkowski, P. J., and Fusillo, T. V.: 1988b, Mammade Organic Compounds in the Surface Waters of the United States: A Review of Current Understanding,'U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1007, 92 p.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • James A. Smith
    • 1
  • Peter R. Jaffé
    • 2
  1. 1.Dept. of Civil Engineering and Applied MechanicsUniversity of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA
  2. 2.Dept. of Civil Engineering and Operations ResearchPrinceton UniversityPrincetonUSA

Personalised recommendations