Skip to main content

Serotonin, noradrenaline, dopamine metabolites in transcendental meditation-technique

Summary

The highly significant increase of 5-HIAA (5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid) in Transcendental Meditation technique suggests systemic serotonin as “rest and fulfillment hormone” of deactivation-relaxation.

Furthermore 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin) is considered to to be the EC-cell (enterochromaffine-cell) hormone requested byFujita andKobayashi and its role for EEG synchronisation via area postrema chemo-receptor as anti arousal agent is being discussed.

The significant decrease of the catecholamine metabolite VMA (vanillic-mandelic acid) in meditators, that is associated with a reciprocal increase of 5-HIAA supports as a feedback necessity the “rest and fulfillment response” versus “fight and flight”.

As the adreno medullary tissue serves for hormonal reinforcement of orthosympathetic activity, the Enterochromaffine Cell System (having taken the form of distinct organs in some species as octopus and discoglossus) is suggested to serve via serotonin for humoral reinforcement of parasympathetic activity in deep relaxation.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Banquet, J.-P.: EEG and Meditation. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology33, 454 (1972).

    Google Scholar 

  • Banquet, J.-P.: Spectral Analysis of the EEG in Meditation. Electroence-phalography and Clinical Neurophysiology35, 143–151 (1973).

    Google Scholar 

  • Benson, H., Wallace, R. K.: Decreased Drug Abuse with Transcendental Meditation: A study of 1862 Subjects. Drug Abuse: Proceedings of the International Conference (Zarafonetis, Chris J. D., ed.), pp. 369–376. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger. 1972, and Congressional Record, Serial No. 92-1 (Washington D.C., U.S.A.: Government Printing Office, 1971).

    Google Scholar 

  • Birkmayer, W., Pilleri, G.: Die retikuläre Formation des Hirnstammes und ihre Bedeutung für das vegetativ-affektive Verhalten. Hoffmann- La Roche & Co. AG., Basel (1965). Wissenschaftl. Dienst.

    Google Scholar 

  • Birkmayer, W., Danielczyk, W., Riederer, P.: Biogene Transmitter und Akupunktur. In: Handbuch für Akupunktur (Bischko, J., ed.), pp. 3 to 21. Haug Verlag. 1976.

  • Bujatti, M.: Design for a Systemtheory of Man. MERU-Journal, in press (1976).

  • Busolati, G., Pearse, A. G. E.: Immunofluorescent localization of the gastrin-secreting G cells in the pyloric antrum of the pig. Histochemie21, 1–4 (1970).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bülbring, E., Lin, R. C. Y.: J. Physiol. (London)140, 381–407 (1958).

    Google Scholar 

  • Bülbring, E., Crema, A.: J. Physiol. (London)146, 18–28, 29–53 (1959).

    Google Scholar 

  • Ciacco, T.: Sur une nouvelle espèce cellulaire dans les glandes de Lieberkühn. Compt. Rend. Soc. Biol. (Paris)60, 76 (1906).

    Google Scholar 

  • Erspamer, V., Acero, B.: Identification of enteramine, the specific hormone of the enterochromaffin cell system as 5-hydroxytryptamine. Nature (London)169, 800–801 (1952).

    Google Scholar 

  • Erspamer, V.: Comparative Endocrinology. U. S. von Euler, Academic Press (1963), Vol. 2.

  • Euler, U. S. von: Chromaffin Cell Hormones. In: Comparative Endo-crinology (Euler, U. S. von, Heller, H., eds.), Vol. l, pp. 258–290. New York: Academic Press. 1963.

    Google Scholar 

  • Feyrter, F.: Über die peripheren endokrinen (parakinen) Drüsen des Menschen. Verlag für medizinische Wissenschaften, Wilhelm Maudrich, Wien-Düsseldorf (1953).

    Google Scholar 

  • Feyrter, F.: Über diffuse endokrine epitheliale Organe, pp. 2 to 9. Leipzig: J. A. Barth. 1938.

    Google Scholar 

  • Frankenhaeuser, M.: Biochemische Indikatoren der Aktiviertheit: Die Ausscheidung von Katecholaminen. In: Methoden der Aktivierungsforschung (Schönpflug, W., ed.). Bern: Hans Huber. 1969.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fujita, T., Kobayashi, S.: Gastro-Entero-Pancreatic Endocrine System. The Cells and Hormones of the GEP Endocrine System, pp. 1–16. Stuttgart: Georg Thieme Publishers. 1974.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gaillard, J. M., Bartholini, G., Herkert, B., Tissot, R.: Involvement of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the cortical synchronisation induced by L-Dopa in the rabbit. Brain Research68, 344–350 (1974).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hamon, M., Glowinsky, J.: Regulation of Serotonin Synthesis. Life Sciences15, 1533–1548 (1974).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hunsky, J., Korman, M. G., Gowiey, D. J., Baron, J. H.: Serum gastrin in duodenal ulcer: 11. Effect of insulin hypoglycaemia. Gut.12, 959–962 (1971).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Jevning, R., Wilson, A., Vanderlaan, E., Levine, S.: Plasma Prolactin and Cortisol during Transcendental Meditation, Proceedings of the Endocrine Society, in press (1975). Reprinted in Scientific Research on the TM-Program: Collected Papers, Vol. 1 (MERU Press Publication Number S 180).

  • Johnson, L. P., Jesseph, J. E.: Evidence for a humoral etiology of the dumping syndrome. Surg. Forum12, 316 (1961).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Johnson, L. P., Sloop, R. D., Jesseph, J. E., Harling, H. N.: Serotonin antagonists in experimental and clinical “dumping”. Anm. Surg.156, 537–545 (1962).

    Google Scholar 

  • Karoum, F., Anah, C. O., Ruthven, C. R. J., Sandler, M.: Further Observation on the Gaschromatographic Measurement of Uurinary phenolic and indolic metabolites. Clin. Chim. Acta24, 341–348 (1969).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kobal, G., Wandhöfer, A., Plattig, K. H.: EEC power spectra and auditory evoked potentials in transcendental meditation. 45. Deutsche Physiologentagung in Wien, 1975.

  • Koella, W. P., Czicman, J. S.: The area postrema as a possible receptor site for EEG synchronisation by 5-HT. Federation Proceedings24, 646 (1965).

    Google Scholar 

  • Koella, W. P.: Serotonin—A Hypogenic Transmitter and an Antiwaking Agent. Advances in Biochemical Psychoparmacology, Vol. 11. New York: Raven Press. 1974.

    Google Scholar 

  • Koella, W. P., Czicman, J. S.: Mechanism of the EEC-synchronizing action of serotonin. American Journal of Physiology211, 926–934 (1966).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Krahne, W.: EEG und Transzendentale Meditation. 45. Deutsche Physiologentagung in Wien, 1975. Deutsche Physiologische Gesellschaft.

  • Kursky, M. D.: Ukrainskii Biokhimichnii Zhurnal6, Vol. 46 (1974).

  • Lee, C. Y.: J. Physiol. (London)152, 405–418 (1960).

    Google Scholar 

  • Maharishi, M. Y.: The science of being and the art of living, p. 335. London: Int. SRM Publ. 1966.

    Google Scholar 

  • Matsuo, Y., Seki, A., Kitamura, A.: Gastro-Entero-Pancreatic Endocrine System. Splanchnic Nerve and Gastrin, pp. 128–134. Stuttgart: Georg Thieme Publishers. 1974.

    Google Scholar 

  • Menguy, R.: Gastric mucus and the gastric mucous barrier. Amer. J. Surg.117, 806–812 (1969).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mitschke, H.: Vergleichende immunohistologische und cytochemische Untersuchungen der Gastrinzellen beim Menschen. Virchows Arch. Abt. Pathol. Anat.353, 347–359 (1971).

    Google Scholar 

  • Oates, J. A., Pettinger, W. A., Doctor, R. B.: Evidence for the release of bradykinin in cardinoid syndrome. J. clin. Invest.45, 173–178 (1966).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Orme-Jobnson, D., Farrow, J.: Scientific Research on the Transcendental Meditation Program. Collected Papers, Vol. 1, p. 702. New York: MIU Press. 1976.

    Google Scholar 

  • Osaka, M., Sasagawa, T., Fujita, T.: Gastro-Entero-Pancreatic Endocrine System. Emiocytotic granule reseale in the human antralendocrine cell, pp. 59–64. Stuttgart: Georg Thieme Publishers. 1974.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pe Thein, Shofield, B.: Release of gastrin the pyloric antrum following vagal stimulation by sham feeding in dogs. J. Physiol.148, 291–305 (1959).

    Google Scholar 

  • Porter, C. C., Totaro, J. A., Leiby, C. M.: J. Pharmacol. Exptl. Therap.134, 139–145 (1961).

    Google Scholar 

  • Riederer, P., Birkmayer, W., Neumayer, E., Ambrozi, L., Linauer, W.: The Daily Rhythm of HVA, VMA, (VA) and 5-HIAA in Depression-syndrom. Journal of Neural Transmission35, 23–45 (1974).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Riederer, P., Tenk, H., Werner, H., Bischko, J., Rett, A., Krisper, H.: Manipulation of Neurotransmitters by Acupuncture(?). Journal of Neural Transmission37, 81–94 (1975).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sandler, M., Ruthven, C. R. J., Fellow, L.: Personal Communication (1973).

  • Shafii, M., Lavely, R. A., Jaffe, R. D.: Meditation and Marijuana. American Journal of Psychiatry131, no. 1, 60–63 (1974).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Selye, H.: TM discovering inner energy and overcoming stress (Bloomfield, H. H.). New York: Delacorte Press. 1975.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sleisenger, W. H., Law, D. H., Smith, F. W., Pert, J. H., Lewis, Ch. M.: J. Clin. Invest.38, 2119–2130 (1959).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Solcia, E., Sampietro, R.: Cytologie observations on the pancreatic islets with reference to some endocrine-like cells of the gastrointestinal mucosa. Z. Zellforsch.68, 689–698 (1965).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Tobe, T., Kimura, C., Fujiwara, M.: Role of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the dumping syndrome after gastroectomy. Histochemical study. Anm. Surg.165, 382–387 (1967).

    Google Scholar 

  • Thorson, A. H.: Acta Med. Scand.161, Suppl. 334, 1–132 (1942).

    Google Scholar 

  • Uvnas, B.: The part played by the pyloric region in the cephalic phase of gastric secretion. Acta physiol. Scand.13, Supp. 4, 1–86 (1942).

    Google Scholar 

  • Wallace, R. K., Benson, H., Wilson, A. F.: A Wakeful Hypometabolic Physiologic State. American Journal of Physiology221, no. 3, 795–799 (1971).

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Additional information

The results of this work have been partly contributed to the neuroscience meeting Sept. 4, 1975 at Courchevel and the MERU-Symposium Hamburg May 22, 1976.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Bujatti, M., Biederer, P. Serotonin, noradrenaline, dopamine metabolites in transcendental meditation-technique. J. Neural Transmission 39, 257–267 (1976). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01256514

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01256514

Keywords

  • Serotonin
  • Area Postrema
  • Adreno
  • Enterochromaffine Cell
  • Transcendental Meditation