, Volume 7, Issue 3, pp 121–131 | Cite as

A survey of identified kairomones and synomones used by insect parasitoids to locate and accept their hosts

  • Claire E. Rutledge
Mini review


The host utilization process of insect parasitoids can be described by three stages of (1)habitatlocation, (2)host-location, and (3)host-acceptance andoviposition. There are 19 systems in which chemicals used inhabitat-location have been identified, 12 systems in which chemical cues leading tohost-location have been identified, and 16 systems in which chemicals elicitinghost-acceptance andoviposition have been identified. Both the chemical class and the source of the infochemical change with the stage of the host utilization process. Semiochemicals identified in thehabitatlocation stage were predominantly aldehydes, alcohols, sulfur-containing compounds, esters and terpenes, and were equally likely to be from the host-plant of the host, or from the host itself. Semiochemicals identified in thehost-location stage were sugars, alkanes, terpenes and heterocyclic aromatic compounds and 3/4 of them were host-produced cues. In thehost-acceptance andoviposition stage the identified semiochemicals were all produced by the host and were proteins, amino acids, triglycerides and salts. The importance of recognizing specific cues involved in host utilization by parasitoids is discussed, and suggestions for future research are made.

Key words

parasitoids kairomones synomones host-location Hymenoptera Diptera 


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Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claire E. Rutledge
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EntomologyUniversity of IllinoisUrbanaUSA

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