Dopamine and depression

Summary

The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia and the emphasis on other neurotransmitters, most notably norepinephirne, serotonin, and acetylcholine, in the pathogenesis of depression, have focused attention away from substantial evidence implicating dopamine in affective disorders. The clinical evidence includes alterations in depressive symptoms with aging (concomitant with possible changes in dopamine metabolism), potential dopaminergic involvement in several subtypes of depression, similarities between some of the symptoms of Parkinson's disease and those of depression (including psychomotor retardation and diminished motivation), and potential dopaminergic abnormalities in seasonal mood disorder. The biochemical evidence in patients with deprission derives from studies of homovanillic acid, a dopamine metabolite, indicating diminished dopamine turnover. In addition, there is a considerable amount of pharmacologic evidence regarding the efficacy of antidepressants with dopaminergic effects in the treatment of depression. We conclude that dopamine likely contributes significantly to the pathophysiology of depression. However, the role of dopamine in this syndrome must be understood in the context of existing theories involving other neurotransmitters which may act independently, and interact with dopamine and other neurochemicals, to contribute to depression.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Adams RD, Victor M (1989) Principles of neurology, 4th ed. McGraw Hill, New York, pp 921–967

    Google Scholar 

  2. Agid Y, Cervera P, Hirsch E, Javoy-Agid F, Lehericy S, Raisman R, Ruberg M (1989) Biochemistry of Parkinson's disease 28 years later: a critical review. Mov Disord 4 [Suppl 1]: S 1126-S 144

    Google Scholar 

  3. Agren H (1980) Symptom patterns in unipolar and bipolar depression correlating with monoamine metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid. II. Suicide. Psychiatry Res 3: 225–236

    Google Scholar 

  4. Agren H, Mefford IN, Rudorfer MV, Linnoila M, Potter WZ (1986) Interacting neurotransmitter systems. A non-experimental approach to the 5-HIAA-HVA correlation in human CSF. J Psychiatr Res 20: 175–193

    Google Scholar 

  5. Amsterdam JD, Winokur A, Lucki I, Snyder P, Harris RI, Caroff S, Rickeis K (1982) Growth hormone, prolactin, and thyrotropin responses to gonadotropin releasing hormone in depressed patients and healthy volunteers. Psychoneuroendocrinology 7: 177–184

    Google Scholar 

  6. Andersen J, Aabro E, Gulmann N, Hjelmsted A, Pedersen HE (1980) Anti-depressant treatment in Parkinson's disease. Acta Neurol Scand 62: 210–219

    Google Scholar 

  7. APA (1987) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-III-R). American Psychiatric Association, Washington DC

    Google Scholar 

  8. Arbisi P, Depue RA, Spoont MR, Leon A, Ainsworth B (1989) Thermoregulatory response in seasonal affective disorder. Psychiatry Res 28: 323–334

    Google Scholar 

  9. Asberg M, Bertilsson L, Martensson B, Scalia Tomba GP, Thoren P, Traskam-Bendz (1984) CSF monoamine metabolites in melancholia. Acta Psychiatr Scand 69: 201–219

    Google Scholar 

  10. Banki CM (1977) Correlation between CSF metabolites and psychomotor activity in affective disorders. J Neurochem 28: 255–257

    Google Scholar 

  11. Banki CM, Molnar G, Vojnik M (1981) Cerebrospinal fluid amine metabolites, tryptophan, and clinical parameters in depression. J Affect Disord 3: 91–99

    Google Scholar 

  12. Banki CM, Arato M, Papp Z, Kurcz M (1984) Biochemical markers in suicidal patients. Investigations with cerebrospinal fluid amine metabolites and neuroendocrine tests. J Affect Disord 6: 341–350

    Google Scholar 

  13. Barrett J, Oxman T, Gerber P (1987) Prevalence of depression and its correlates in a general medical practive. J Affect Disord 12: 167–174

    Google Scholar 

  14. Beluzzi JD, Stein L (1977) Enkephalin may mediate euphoria and drive reward. Nature 266: 556–558

    Google Scholar 

  15. Berger PA, Faull KF, Kilhowski J, Anderson PJ, Kraemer H, Davis KL, Barchas JD (1980) CSF monoamine metabolites in depression and schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 137: 174–180

    Google Scholar 

  16. Berrettini WH, Post RM (1984) GABA in affective illness. In: Post RM, Ballenger JC (eds) Neurobiology of mood disorders. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 673–685

    Google Scholar 

  17. Bertler A (1961) Occurrence and localization of catecholamines in the human brain. Acta Physiol Scand 51: 97

    Google Scholar 

  18. Beskow J, Gottfries CG, Roos BE, Winblad B (1976) Determination of monoamine and monoamine metabolites in the human brain: post mortem studies in a group of suicides and in control group. Acta Psychiatr Scand 53: 7–20

    Google Scholar 

  19. Blazer DG (1982) Symptoms and signs. In: Depression in late life. Mosby, St. Louis, p 27

    Google Scholar 

  20. Bouras N, Bridges PK (1982) Bromocriptine in depression. Curr Med Res Opin 8: 150–153

    Google Scholar 

  21. Bowers MB, Goodman E, Sim VM (1964) Some behavioral changes in man following anticholinesterase administration. J Nerv Ment Dis 138: 383–389

    Google Scholar 

  22. Bremner JD, Abrahams LM, Crupie JE, McCawley A, Proctor RC, Sathananthan GL (1984) Multicenter double-blind comparison of nomifensine and imipramine for efficacy and safety in depressed outpatients. J Clin Psychiatry 45 [4, sec 2]: 56–59

    Google Scholar 

  23. Brotman AW, Falk WE, Gelenburg AJ (1987) Pharmacologic treatment of acute depressive subtypes. In: Meltzer HY (ed) Psychopharmacology: the third generation of progress. Raven Press, New York, pp 1031–1040

    Google Scholar 

  24. Brown GL, Goodwin FK, Ballenger HC, Goyer PF, Major LF (1979) Aggression in humans correlates with cerebrospinal fluid amine metabolites. Psychiatry Res 1: 131–139

    Google Scholar 

  25. Brown RG, Marsden CD, Quinn N, Wyke MA (1984) Alterations in cognitive performance and affectarousal state during fluctuations in motor function in Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 47: 454–465

    Google Scholar 

  26. Bunney WE, Davis JM (1965) Norepinephrine in depressive reactions: a review. Arch Gen Psychiatry 13: 483–494

    Google Scholar 

  27. Butcher LL, Engel J (1969) Behavioral and biochemical effects of L-dopa after peripheral decarboxylase inhibition. Brain Res 15: 233–242

    Google Scholar 

  28. Carlsson A, Winblad B (1976) Influence of age and time interval between death and autopsy in dopamine and 3-methoxytyramine levels in human basal ganglia. J Neural Transm 38: 271

    Google Scholar 

  29. Carlsson A (1981) Aging and brain neurotransmitters. In: Crock T, Gershon G (eds) Strategies for the development of an effective treatment for senile dementia. Mark Dowley, New Canaan Conn, pp 93–104

    Google Scholar 

  30. Charney DS, Nelson JC (1981) Delusional and nondelusional unipolar depression: further evidence for distinct subtypes. Am J Psychiatry 138: 328–333

    Google Scholar 

  31. Cooper BR, Hester TJ, Maxwell RA (1980) Behavioral and biochemical effects of the antidepressant bupropion (wellbutrin): evidence for selective blockade of dopamine uptake in vivo. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 215: 127–134

    Google Scholar 

  32. Corrodi H, Farnebo L, Fuxe K, Hamberger B, Ungerstedt U (1972) ET-495 and brain catecholamine mechanisms: evidence for stimulation of dopamine receptors. Eur J Pharmacol 20: 195–204

    Google Scholar 

  33. Coryell W, Tsuang MT, McDaniel J (1982) Psychotic features in major depression: is mood congruence important? J Affect Disord 4: 227–236

    Google Scholar 

  34. Creese I (1989) Receptors, radioligand binding, and psychatric disorders. In: Michels R (ed) Psychiatry, vol 3, chapter 50. Lippincott, Philadelphia, pp 1–16

    Google Scholar 

  35. Davidson J, Linnoila M, Raft D, Turnball CD (1981) MAO inhibition and control of anxiety following amitriptyline therapy: a pilot study. Acta Psychiatr Neurol Scand 63: 147–152

    Google Scholar 

  36. Davis KL, Berger PA, Hollister LE, Defraites E (1978) Physostigmine in mania. Arch Gen Psychiatry 35: 119–122

    Google Scholar 

  37. Depue RA, Arbisi P, Spoont MR, Krauss S, Leon A, Ainsworth B (1989) Seasonal and mood independence of low basal prolactin secretion in premenopausal women with seasonal affective disorder. Am J Psychiatry 146: 989–995

    Google Scholar 

  38. Depue RA, Arbisi P, Krauss S, Iacono WG, Leon A, Muir R, Allen J (1990) Seasonal independence of low prolactin concentration and high spontaneous eye blink rates in unipolar and bipolar II seasonal affective disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 47: 356–364

    Google Scholar 

  39. Eisemann M, Ericsson U, Von Knorring L, Perris C, Perris H, Ross S (1983) Serum dopamine-beta-hydroxylase in diagnostic subgroups of depressed patients and in relation to their personality characteristics. Neuropsychobiology 9: 193–196

    Google Scholar 

  40. Elsworth JD, Glover V, Reynolds GP, Sandler M, Less AJ, Phupradit P, Shaw KM, Stern GM, Kumar P (1978) Deprenyl administration in man: a selective monoamine oxidase inhibitor without the cheese effect. Psychopharmacology (Berlin) 57: 33–38

    Google Scholar 

  41. Fann WE, Lyle FA, Higginbotham W (1984) Nomifensine vs imipramine in depressed inpatients. J Clin Psychiatry 45 [4, sec 2]: 60–62

    Google Scholar 

  42. Feighner JP, Merideth CH, Claghorn JC (1984) Multicenter placebo-controlled evaluation of nomifensine treatment in depressed outpatients. J Clin Psychiatry 45 [2, sec 2]: 47–51

    Google Scholar 

  43. Ferris RM, White HL, Cooper BR, Maxwell RA, Tang FLM, Beaman OJ, Russell A (1980) Some neurochemical properties of a novel antidepressant, Bupropion hydrochloride (Wellbutrin). Drug Dev Res 1

  44. Fibiger HC (1984) The neurobiological substrates of depression in Parkinson's disease: a hypothesis. Can J Neurol Sci 11 [Suppl]: 105–107

    Google Scholar 

  45. Fielding S, Szewczak MR (1984) Pharmacology of nomifensine: a review of animal studies. J Clin Psychiatry 45 [4, sec 2]: 12–20

    Google Scholar 

  46. Friedenberg DL, Cummings JL (1989) Parkinson's disease, depression and the on-off phenomenon. Psychosomatics 30: 94–99

    Google Scholar 

  47. Gaillard JM, Nicholson AN, Pasco PA (1989) Neurotransmitter systems. In: Kryger MH, Roth T, Dement WC (eds) Principles and practice of sleep medicine. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 208–212

    Google Scholar 

  48. Garratini S, Barreggi SR, Marc V, Calderini G, Morselli P (1974) Effects of piribedil on noradrenaline and MOPEG-SO4 levels in the rat brain. Eur J Pharmacol 28: 214–216

    Google Scholar 

  49. Garver DL, Pandey GN, Hengeveld C, Davis JM (1977) Growth hormone response and central aminergic systems in affective diseases. Psychopharmacol Bull 13: 61–63

    Google Scholar 

  50. Gelenburg AJ, Wojcik JD, Growdon JH, Sved AF, Wurtman RJ (1980) Tyrosine for the treatment of depression. Am J Psychiatry 137: 622–623

    Google Scholar 

  51. Georgia EH (1984) Double-blind comparison of the efficacy and safety of nomifensine maleate vs placebo in depressed outpatients. J Clin Psychiatry 45 [4, see 2]: 43–46

    Google Scholar 

  52. Georgotas A, McCue RE, Friedman E, Cooper C (1987 a) Prediction of response to nortriptyline and phenelzine by platelet MAO activity. Am J Psychiatry 144: 338–340

    Google Scholar 

  53. Georgotas A, McCue RE, Cooper T, Chang I, Pervez M, Welkowitz J (1987 b) Clinical predictors of response to antidepressants in elderly patients. Biol Psychiatry 22: 733–740

    Google Scholar 

  54. Gershon S, Shaw FH (1961) Psychiatric sequelae of chronic exposure to organophosphorous insecticides. Lancet i: 1371–1374

    Google Scholar 

  55. Goldman-Rakic PS, Brown RM (1982) Postnatal development of monoamine content and synthesis in the cerebral cortex of rhesus monkeys. Brain Res 4: 339–349

    Google Scholar 

  56. Goldstein BJ, Brauzer B, Kentsmith D, Rosenthal S, Charalampous KD (1984) Doubleblind placebo-controlled multicenter evaluation of the efficacy and safety of nomifensine in depressed outpatients. J Clin Psychiatry 45 [4, sec 2]: 52–55

    Google Scholar 

  57. Goldstein M, Battista AF, Ohmoto T, Anagnoste B, Fuxe K (1973) Tremor and involuntary movements in monkeys: Effects of L-DOPA and of a dopamine receptor stimulating agent. Science 179: 816–817

    Google Scholar 

  58. Goodnick PJ, Extein IL (1989) Bupropion and fluoxetine in depressive subtypes. Ann Clin Psychiatry 1: 119–122

    Google Scholar 

  59. Goodwin FK, Post RM, Dunner DL, Gordon EK (1973) Cerebrospinal fluid metabolites in affective illness: the probenecid technique. Am J Psychiatry 130: 73–79

    Google Scholar 

  60. Goodwin FK, Sack RL (1974) Central dopamine function in affective illness: evidence from precursors, enzyme inhibitors, and studies of central dopamine turnover. In: Usdin E (ed) Neuropsychopharmacology of monoamines and their regulatory enzymes. Raven Press, New York

    Google Scholar 

  61. Gotham A, Brown RG, Marsden CD (1986) Depression in Parkinson's disease: a quantitative and qualitative analysis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 49: 381–389

    Google Scholar 

  62. Gottfries CG (1981) Etiological and treatment considerations in SDAT. In: Crock T, Gershon G (eds) Strategies for the development of an effective treatment for senile dementia. Mark Dowley, New Canaan Conn, pp 107–120

    Google Scholar 

  63. Gottfries CG (1982) The metabolism of some neurotransmitters in aging and dementia disorders. Gerontology 28 [Suppl 2]: 11–19

    Google Scholar 

  64. Guan XM, McBride WJ (1989) Serotonin microinfusion into the ventral tegmental area increases accumbens dopamine release. Brain Res Bull 23: 541–547

    Google Scholar 

  65. Gudelsky GA (1981) Tuberoinfundibular-dopaminergic neurons and the regulation of prolactin secretion. Psychoneuroendocrinology 6: 3–16

    Google Scholar 

  66. Gurland B (1976) The comparative frequency of depression in various adult age groups. J Gerontol 31: 283–292

    Google Scholar 

  67. Guze SB, Woodruff RA, Clayton PJ (1975) The significance of psychotic affective disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry 32: 1147–1150

    Google Scholar 

  68. Halbreich U, Grunhaus L, Ben-David M (1979) Twenty-four-hour rhythm of prolactin in depressive patients. Arch Gen Psychiatry 36: 1183–1186

    Google Scholar 

  69. Hardie RT, Lees AF, Stern GM (1984) On-off fluctuations in Parkinson's disease. Brain 107: 487–506

    Google Scholar 

  70. Hornykiewicz O (1971) Recent advances in Parkinson's disease. In: McDowell FH, Markham CH (eds) Contemporary neurology series, vol 8. Davis, Philadelphia, pp 33–65

    Google Scholar 

  71. Horrobin DF, Mtabaji JP, Karmali RA (1976) Prolactin and mental illness. Postgrad Med J [Suppl 3] 52: 79–85

    Google Scholar 

  72. Janowsky DS, El-Yousef MK, Davis JM, Sekerke HJ (1972) A cholinergic-adrenergic hypothesis of mania and depression. Lancet ii: 6732–6735

    Google Scholar 

  73. Janowsky DS, El-Yousef MK, Davis JM, Sekerke H (1973) Antagonistic effects of physostigmine and methylphenidate in man. Am J Psychiatry 130: 1370–1376

    Google Scholar 

  74. Janowsky DS, El-Yousef MK, Davis JM (1974) Acetylcholine and depression. Psychosom Med 36: 248–257

    Google Scholar 

  75. Janowsky DS, Risch SC, Neborsky R (1989) Strategies for studying neurotransmitter hypotheses of affective disorders. In: Michels R (ed) Psychiatry, vol 3, chapter 55. Lipincott, Philadelphia, pp 1–10

    Google Scholar 

  76. Jimerson DC (1987) Role of dopamine mechanisms in the affective disorders. In: Meltzer HY (ed) Psychopharmacology: the third generation of progress. Raven Press, New York, pp 505–511

    Google Scholar 

  77. Jimerson DC, Cutler NR, Rost RM, Rey A, Gold PW, Brown GM, Bunney WE (1984) Neuroendocrine responses to apomorphine in depressive patients and healthy control subjects. Psychiatry Res 13: 1–12

    Google Scholar 

  78. Judd LL, Risch SC, Parker DC, Janowsky DS, Segal DS, Huey LY (1982) Blunted prolactin response: a neuroendocrine abnormality manifested by depressed patients. Arch Gen Psychiatry 39: 1413–1416

    Google Scholar 

  79. Kabins D, Gershon S (1990) Potential applications for monoamine oxidase B inhibitor. Dementia 1: 323–348

    Google Scholar 

  80. Karson CN (1983) Spontaneous eye-blink rates and dopaminergic systems. Brain 106: 643–653

    Google Scholar 

  81. Kasa K, Otsuki S, Yamamoto M, Sato M, Kuroda H, Ogawa N (1982) Cerebrospinal fluid gamma-aminobutyric acid and homovanillic acid in depressive disorders. Biol Psychiatry 17: 877–883

    Google Scholar 

  82. Kiloh LG, Neilson M, Andrews G (1974) Response of depressed patients to methylamphetamine. Br J Psychiatry 125: 496–499

    Google Scholar 

  83. Knoll J (1983) Deprenyl (selegiline): the history of its development and pharmacological action. Acta Neurol Scand 68 [Suppl 95]: 57–80

    Google Scholar 

  84. Koslow SH, Maas JW, Bowden CL, Davis JM, Hanin I, Javaid J (1983) CSF and urinary biogenic amines and metabolites in depression and mania. A controlled, univariate analysis. Arch Gen Psychiatry 40: 996–1010

    Google Scholar 

  85. Kostic VS, Djuricic BM, Covickovic-Sternic N, Bumbasirevic L, Nikolic M, Mrsuljy BB (1987) Depression and Parkinson's disease: possible role of serotonergic mechanisms. J Neurol 234: 94–96

    Google Scholar 

  86. Kuniyoshi M, Arikawa K, Miura C, Inanaga K (1989) Parkinsonism manifesting depression as the first sign. Jpn J Psychiatr Neurol 43: 37–43

    Google Scholar 

  87. Leckman JF, Cohen DJ, Shaywith BA, Caparulo BK, Heninger GR, Bowers MB (1980) CSF monoamine metabolites in child and adult psychiatric patients: a developmental perspective. Arch Gen Psychiatry 37: 677–681

    Google Scholar 

  88. Leckman JF, Weissman MM, Prusoff BA, Caruso KA, Merikangas KR, Pauls DR, Kidd KK (1984) Subtypes of depression: family study perspective. Arch Gen Psychiatry 41: 833–888

    Google Scholar 

  89. Lee TF, Mora F, Myers RD (1985) Dopamine and thermorégulation: an evaluation with special reference to dopaminergic pathways. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 9: 589–612

    Google Scholar 

  90. Lees AJ, Smith E (1983) Cognitive deficits in the early stages of Parkinson's disease. Brain 106: 257–270

    Google Scholar 

  91. Linkowski P, Brauman H, Mendlewicz J (1980) Prolactin secretion in women with unipolar and bipolar depression. Psychiatry Res 3: 265–271

    Google Scholar 

  92. Mann J, Gershon S (1980) L-deprenyl-A selective monoamine oxidase type-B inhibitor in endogenous depression. Life Sci 26: 877–882

    Google Scholar 

  93. Mann J, Frances A, Kaplan RD, et al (1982) The relative efficacy of L-deprenyl, a selective monoamine oxidase type B inhibitor in endogenous and nonendogenous depression. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2: 54–57

    Google Scholar 

  94. Mann J, Aarons SF, Willner PJ (1989) A controlled sty of the antidepressant efficacy and side effects of deprenyl: a selective monoamine oxidase inhibitor. Arch Gen Psychiatry 46: 45–50

    Google Scholar 

  95. Marantz R, Sachar EJ, Weitzman E, Sassin J (1976) Cortisol and GH responses to D- and L-amphetamine in monkeys. Endocrinology 99: 459–465

    Google Scholar 

  96. Mayeux R, Stern Y, Cote L, Williams JBW (1984) Altered serotonin metabolism in depressed patients with Parkinson's disease. Neurology 34: 642–646

    Google Scholar 

  97. Mayeux R, Stern Y, Sano M, Williams JBW, Cote LJ (1988) The relationship of serotonin to depression in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord 3: 237–244

    Google Scholar 

  98. Meltzer HY, Cho HW, Carroll BJ, Russo P (1976) Serum dopamine-beta-hydroxlase activity in the affective psychoses and schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 33: 585–591

    Google Scholar 

  99. Meltzer HY, Kolakowska T, Fang VS, Fogg L, Robertson A, Lewine R, Strahilevitz M, Busch D (1984) Growth hormone and prolactin response to apomorphine in schizophrenia and the major affective disorders. Relation to duration of illness and depressive symptoms. Arch Gen Psychiatry 41: 512–519

    Google Scholar 

  100. Mendis N, Pare CMB, Sandler M, Glover V, Stern GM (1981) Is the failure of L-deprenyl, a selective monoamine oxidase B inhibitor, to elleviate depression related to freedom from the cheese effect? Psychopharmacology 73: 87–90

    Google Scholar 

  101. Mendlewicz J, Youdim MBH (1978) Antidepressant potentiation of 5-hydroxytryptophan by L-deprenyl, an MAO type B inhibitor. J Neural Transm 43: 279–286

    Google Scholar 

  102. Mendelwicz J, Youdim MBH (1983) L-deprenyl — a selective monoamine oxidase type B inhibitor in the treatment of depression: a double-blind evaluation. Br J Psychiatry 142: 508–511

    Google Scholar 

  103. Mendlewicz J, Van Cauter E, Linkowski P (1980) Current concepts. I. The 24-hour profile of prolactin in depression. Life Sci 27: 2015–2024

    Google Scholar 

  104. Mindham RHS, Marsden CD, Parkes JD (1976) Psychiatric symptoms during L-dopa therapy for Parkinson's disease and their relationship to physical disability. Psychol Med 6: 23–33

    Google Scholar 

  105. Montgomery SA, Montgomery D (1982) Pharmacological prevention of suicidal behaviour. J Affect Disord 4: 291–298

    Google Scholar 

  106. Murphy DL, Brodie HK, Goodwin FK, Bunney WE (1971) Regular induction of hypomania by L-dopa in “bipolar” manic-depressive patients. Nature 229: 135–136

    Google Scholar 

  107. Murphy DL, Aulakh CS, Garrick NA, Sunderland T (1987) Monoamine oxidase inhibitors as antidepressants: implications for the mechanism of action of antidepressants and the psychobiology of the affective disorders and some related disorders. In: Meltzer HY (ed) Psychopharmacology: the third generation of progress. Raven Press, New York, pp 545–552

    Google Scholar 

  108. Narabayashi H (1985) Pharmacological treatment of Parkinson's disease — past and future. Jpn J Neuropsychopharmacol 7: 713–728

    Google Scholar 

  109. Nelson JC, Bowers MB (1978) Delusional unipolar depression: description and drug response. Arch Gen Psychiatry 35: 1321–1328

    Google Scholar 

  110. Nissenbaum H, Quinn NP, Brown RG, Tonne B, Gotham AM, Marsden CD (1978) Mood swings associated with the “on-off” phenomenon in Parkinson's disease. Psychol Med 17: 899–904

    Google Scholar 

  111. Oreland L, Wiberg A, Asberg M, Traskam L, Sjostrand L, Thoren P, Pertilsson L, Tybring G (1981) Platelet MAP activity and monoamine metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid in depressed and suicidal patients and in healthy controls. Psychiatry Res 4: 21–29

    Google Scholar 

  112. Palaniappan V, Ramachandran V, Somasaundaram O (1983) Suicidal ideation and biogenic amines in depression. Indian J Psychiatry 25: 286–292

    Google Scholar 

  113. Pare CMB, Yeung DPH, Price K, Stacey RS (1969) 5-Hydroxytryptamine, noradrenaline and dopamine in brainstem, hypothalamus and caudate nucleus of controls and of patients committing suicide by coal-gas poisoning. Lancet ii: 133–135

    Google Scholar 

  114. Paul SM, Rehavi M, Skolnick P, Ballenger JC, Goodwin FK (1981) Depressed patients have decreased binding of tritiated imipramine to platelet serotonin transporter. Arch Gen Psychiatry 38: 1315–1317

    Google Scholar 

  115. Post RM, Gerner RH, Carman JS, Gillin JC, Jimerson DC, Goodwin FK, Bunney WE (1978) Effects of a dopamine agonist piribedil in depressed patients: relationship of pretreatment homovanillic acid to antidepressant réponse. Arch Gen Psychiatry 35: 609–615

    Google Scholar 

  116. Post RM, Pickar D, Ballenger JCC, Naber D, Rubinow DR (1984) Endogenous opiates in cerebrospinal fluid: relationship to mood and anxiety. In: Post RM, Ballenger JC (eds) Neurobiology of mood disorders. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 356–368

    Google Scholar 

  117. Puig-Antich J (1979) Plasma levels of imipramine and clinical response in prepubertal major depressive disorder. J Am Acad Psychiatry 18: 616

    Google Scholar 

  118. Puzynski S, Rode A, Zaluska M (1983) Studies on biogenic amine metabolizing enzymes (DBH, COMT, MAO) and pathogenesis of affective illness. Acta Psychiatr Scand 67: 89–95

    Google Scholar 

  119. Quitkin FM, Leibowitz MR, Stewart JW, McGrath PJ, Harrison W, Rabkin JG, Markowitz J, Davies So (1984) L-deprenyl in atypical depressives. Arch Gen Psychiatry 41: 777–781

    Google Scholar 

  120. Randrup A, Munkvad I, Fog R, Gerlach J, Molander L, Kjellberg B, Scheel-Kruger J (1975) Mania, depression and brain dopamine. In: Essman WB, Valzelli L (eds) Current developments in psychopharmacology, vol 2. Spectrum Publications, New York, pp 206–248

    Google Scholar 

  121. Reynolds CF, Spiker DG, Hanin I, Kupfer DJ (1983) Electroencephalographic sleep, aging, and psychopathology: new data and state of the art. Biol Psychiatry 18: 139–155

    Google Scholar 

  122. Reynolds GP, Elsworth JD, Blau K (1978) Deprenyl is metabolized to metamphetamine and amphetamine in man. Br J Clin Pharmacol 6: 542–544

    Google Scholar 

  123. Robertson MM, Trimble MR (1982) Major tranquillisers used as antidepressants. J Affect Disord 4: 173–193

    Google Scholar 

  124. Robins AH (1976) Depression in patients with parkinsonism. Br J Psychiatry 128: 141–145

    Google Scholar 

  125. Robinson DS, Kurtz NM (1987) Monoamine oxidase inhibiting drugs: pharmacologic and therapeutic issues. In: Meltzer HY (ed) Psychopharmacology: the third generation of progress. Raven Press, New York, pp 1297–1304

    Google Scholar 

  126. Robinson DS, Davis JM, Nies A (1971) Relation of sex and aging to monoamine oxidase activity of human brain, plasma, and platelets. Arch Gen Psychiatry 24: 536–539

    Google Scholar 

  127. Rothschild AJ, Schatzberg AF, Langlais PJ, Lerbinger JE, Miller MM, Cole J (1987) Psychotic and nonnpsychotic depressions. I. Comparisons of plasma catecholamines and cotrisol measures. Psychiatry Res 20: 143–153

    Google Scholar 

  128. Roy A (1988) Plasma HVA levels in depressed patients and controls. J Affect Disord 14: 293–296

    Google Scholar 

  129. Roy A, Brockington K (1987) Plasma dopamine-beta-hydroxlase in depressed patients and controls. Neuropsychobiology 18: 57–59

    Google Scholar 

  130. Roy A, Pickar D, Linnoila M, Doran AR, Ninan P, Paul SM (1985) Cerebrospinal fluid monoamine and monoamine metabolite concentrations in melancholia. Psychiatry Res 15: 281–292

    Google Scholar 

  131. Roy A, Agren H, Pickar D, Linnoila M, Doran AR, Cutler NR, Paul SM (1986) Reduced cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of homovanillic acid and homovanilic acid to 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ratio in depressed patients: relationship to suicidality and dexamethasone nonsuppression. Am J Psychiatry 143: 1539–1545

    Google Scholar 

  132. Rudorfer MV, Golden RN, Potter WZ (1984) Second-generation antidepressants. Psychiatr Clin North Am 7: 519–534

    Google Scholar 

  133. Sapru MK, Rao BSSR, Channabasavanna SM (1989) Serum dopamine-beta-hydroxylase activity in clinical subtypes of depression. Acta Psychiatr Scand 80: 474–478

    Google Scholar 

  134. Schildkraut JJ (1965) The catecholamine hypothesis of affective disorders: a review of supporting evidence. Am J Psychiatry 122: 509–522

    Google Scholar 

  135. Schildkraut JJ (1978) The current status of the catecholamine hypothesis of affective disorders. In: Lipton M, DiMascio A, Killam F (eds) Psychopharmacology: a generation of progress. Raven Press, New York, pp 1223–1234

    Google Scholar 

  136. Silberman EK, Reus VI, Jimerson DC, Lynott AM, Post RM (1981) Heterogeneity of amphetamine response in depressed patients. Am J Psychiatry 138: 1302–1307

    Google Scholar 

  137. Silverstone T (1978) Dopamine, mood and manic-depressive psychosis. In: Garattini S (ed) Depressive disorders. Schattauer, Stuttgart, pp 419–430

    Google Scholar 

  138. Silverstone T (1984) Response to bromocriptine distinguishes bipolar from unipolar depression. Lancet 21: 903–904

    Google Scholar 

  139. Sitaram N, Gillin C, Bunney WE (1984) Cholinergic and catecholaminergic receptor sensitivity in affective illness: strategy and theory. In: Post RM, Ballenger SC (eds) Neurobiology of mood disorders. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 629–651

    Google Scholar 

  140. Sjostrom R, Roos BE (1972) 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid and homovanillic acid in cerebrospinal fluid in manic-depressive psychosis. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 4: 170–176

    Google Scholar 

  141. Soroko FE, Mehta NB, Maxwell RA, Ferris RM, Schroeder DH (1977) Bupropion hydrochloride [(+/−) alpha-t-butylamino-3-chloropropiopenone HCl]: a novel antidepressant agent. J Pharm Pharmacol 29: 767–769

    Google Scholar 

  142. Spiker DG, Cofsky Weiss J, Dealy RS, Griffin SJ, Hanin I, Neil JF, Perel JM, Rossi A, Soloff PH (1985) The pharmacological treatment of delusional depression. Am J Psychiatry 142: 430–436

    Google Scholar 

  143. Strandman E, Wetterberg L., Perris C, Ross SB (1978) Serum dopamine-beta-hydroxylase in affective disorders. Neuropsychobiology 4: 248–255

    Google Scholar 

  144. Stern WC, Rogers J, Fong V, Meltzer H (1979) Influence of bupropion HCl (wellbutrin), a novel antidepressant, on plasma levels of prolactin and growth hormone in man and rat. Life Sci 25: 1717–1724

    Google Scholar 

  145. Subramanyam S (1975) Role of biogenic amines in certain pathological conditions. Brain Res 87: 335–362

    Google Scholar 

  146. Sweeney D, Nelson NC, Bowers M, Maas J, Heninger G (1978) Delusional versus nondelusional depression: neurochemical differences. Lancet ii: 100–101

    Google Scholar 

  147. Tariot PN, Cohen RM, Sunderland T, Newhouse PA, Yount D, Mellow AM, Weingartner H, Mueller EA, Murphy DL (1987 a) L-deprenyl in Alzheimer's disease: preliminary evidence for behavioral change with monoamine oxidase B inhibitor. Arch Gen Psychiatry 44: 427–433

    Google Scholar 

  148. Tariot PN, Sunderland T, Weingartner H, Murphy DL, Welkowitz JA, Thompson K, Cohen RM (1987 b) Cognitive effects of L-deprenyl in Alxheimer's disease. Psychopharmacology 91: 489–495

    Google Scholar 

  149. Taylor AE, Saint-Cyr JA (1990) Depression in Parkinson's disease: reconciling physiological and psychological perspectives. Neuropsychiatr Pract Opin 2: 92–98

    Google Scholar 

  150. Theohar C, Fischer-Cornelsson K, Akesson HO, Ansari J, Gerlach G, Ohman R, Ose E, Stegnik AJ (1981) Bromocriptine as antidepressant: double-blind comparative study with imipramine in psychogenic and endogenous depression. Curr Ther Res 30: 830–842

    Google Scholar 

  151. Traskman L, Asberg M, Bertilsson L, Sjostrand L (1981) Monoamine metabolites in CSF and suicidal behavior. Arch Gen Psychiatry 38: 631–636

    Google Scholar 

  152. Tsuang MT, Faraone S (1990) The genetics of mood disorders. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore

    Google Scholar 

  153. Ugedo L, Grenhoff J, Svensson TH (1989) Ritanserin, a 5-HT-2 receptor antagonist, activates midbrain dopamine neurons by blocking serotonergic inhibition. Psychopharmacology 98: 45–50

    Google Scholar 

  154. van Praag HM (1982) Depression, suicide, and the metabolism of serotonin in the brain. J Affect Disord 4: 275–290

    Google Scholar 

  155. van Praag HM, Korf J (1971) Retarded depression and the dopamine metabolism. Psychopharmacologia 19: 199–203

    Google Scholar 

  156. van Praag HM, Korf J, Puite J (1970) 5-Hydroxyindoleaetic acid levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of depressive patients treated with probenecid. Nature 225: 1259–1260

    Google Scholar 

  157. van Praag HM, Korf J, Schut D (1973) Cerebral monoamines and depression: an investigation with the probenecid technique. Arch Gen Psychiatry 28: 827–831

    Google Scholar 

  158. Varga E, Tringer L (1967) Clinical trial of a new type promptly acting psychoenergetic agent (phenylisopropyl methylpropinyl-HCl, E-250). Acta Med Acad Sci Hung 23: 289–295

    Google Scholar 

  159. Vogel HP (1982) Symptoms of depression in Parkinson's disease. Pharmacopsychiatry 15: 192–196

    Google Scholar 

  160. Waehrens J, Gerlach J (1981) Bromocriptine and imipramine in endogenous depression. A double-blind controlled trial in outpatients. J Affect Disord 3: 193–202

    Google Scholar 

  161. Whiteman PD, Peck AW, Fowle ASE, Smith PR (1983) Failure of bupropion to affect prolactin or growth hormone in man. J Clin Psychiatry 44 [sec 2]: 209–210

    Google Scholar 

  162. Willner P (1983) Dopamine and depression: a review of recent evidence. III. The effects of antidepressant treatments. Brain Res Rev 6: 237–246

    Google Scholar 

  163. Young JPR, Hughes WC, Lader M (1976) A controlled comparison of flupenthixol and amitriptyline in depressed outpatients. Br Med J 1: 1116–1118

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Brown, A.S., Gershon, S. Dopamine and depression. J. Neural Transmission 91, 75–109 (1993). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01245227

Download citation

Keywords

  • Dopamine
  • neurotransmitters
  • depression
  • Parkinson's disease